vxrt20200630_s3.htm

 

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 8, 2020

Registration No. 333-            



 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 


 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT


UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 


 

VAXART, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


 

 

Delaware

 

59-1212264

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 

385 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 9A

South San Francisco, CA 94080

(650) 550-3500

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)


 

 

Andrei Floroiu 

Chief Executive Officer

385 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 9A

South San Francisco, CA 94080

(650) 550-3500

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 


Copies to:

 

Faith L. Charles
Thompson Hine LLP

335 Madison Avenue, 12th Floor

New York, NY 10017-4611

(212) 344-5680


 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement, as determined by the registrant.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ☐

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: ☒

 

 

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☒

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ☐

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each class of securities to be registered

Amount to be

registered

Proposed

 maximum

 offering

 price per

unit

Proposed

maximum

offering

price

Amount of

registration fee

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

(1)

(1)

(1)

(2)

Preferred Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

(1)

(1)

(1)

(2)

Warrants

(1)

(1)

(1)

(2)

Debt Securities

(1)

(1)

(1)

(2)

Purchase Contracts

(1)

(1)

(1)

(2)

Units (3)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(2)

Subtotal        
Primary Offering of Common Stock:        
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share $100,000,000 $100,000,000 $12,980
Total (1) (1) (1) (2)

 

(1)

Pursuant to Form S-3 General Instructions II.E this information is not required to be included. An indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities.

 

(2)

In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, except with respect to the $12,980 to be paid in connection with the primary offering of common stock described in the table, which is being paid with the filing of this registration statement, the registrant is deferring payment of all registration fees and will pay the registration fees subsequently in advance or on a “pay-as-you-go” basis.

 

(3)

Securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereby, with such units consisting of some or all of the securities listed above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, purchase contracts, and warrants.

 



 

 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

 

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of the registrant’s common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts and/or units; and

 

 

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $100,000,000 of the registrant's common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement with SVB Leerink LLC and B. Riley FBR, Inc.

 

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus other than the shares under the sales agreement will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The specific terms of the securities to be issued and sold under the sales agreement are specified in the sales agreement prospectus that immediately follows the base prospectus.

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

 Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Purchase Contracts

Units


 

 

We may offer and sell the securities identified above, and any selling securityholders may offer and sell shares of common stock identified above, in each case from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our common stock by any selling securityholders.

 

Each time we or any of the selling securityholders offer and sell securities, we or such selling securityholders will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and, if applicable, the selling securityholders, as well as the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the documents we incorporate by reference, before you invest in any of our securities.

 

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. In addition, any selling securityholders may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time, together or separately. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

 

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the trading symbol “VXRT.” On July 7, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market was $8.87. As of June 30, 2020, there were 96,140,661 shares of our common stock outstanding.

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 2 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

 

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is July 8, 2020.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

i

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY 1

RISK FACTORS

2

THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

4

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

6

USE OF PROCEEDS

7

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

8

DESCRIPTION OF THE DEBT SECURITIES

11

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

13

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

16

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

17

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

20

LEGAL MATTERS

22

EXPERTS

22

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

23

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

23

 

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of our securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of an automatic registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell common stock, preferred stock, various series of debt securities, or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities described in this prospectus, in one or more offerings from time to time. Selling stockholders may offer and sell, in one or more offerings, shares of common stock as described in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. There is no limit on the aggregate amount of the securities that we or selling stockholders may offer pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we, and the common stock selling stockholders, may offer.

 

Each time we sell any type or series of securities, or selling stockholders offer common stock, under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will include more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, will include all material information relating to the applicable offering. Before buying any of the securities being offered, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the additional information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

 

The information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, the prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or the time of any sale of a security.

 

This prospectus includes summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.

 

The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference herein and does not contain all the information that may be important to purchasers of our securities. You should carefully read this prospectus, all documents incorporated by reference, any prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and the additional information described under the caption “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus, before buying any of the securities being offered. References in this prospectus to “Vaxart,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Vaxart, Inc. and its subsidiaries, on a consolidated basis, unless the context requires otherwise.

 

i

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus and accompanying base prospectus, and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the base prospectus, and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus . You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus , including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Throughout this prospectus, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” and “our company” refer to Vaxart, Inc.

 

Our Company

 

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on developing oral tablet vaccines designed to generate mucosal and systemic immune responses that protect against a wide range of infectious diseases and has the potential to provide sterilizing immunity for diseases such as coronavirus disease 19 (“COVID-19”). We believe that a room temperature stable tablet vaccine is easier to distribute, store and administer than injectable vaccines and may provide significantly faster response to a pandemic than injectable vaccines, enabling a greater portion of the population to be protected. Our development programs include oral tablet vaccines that are designed to protect against coronavirus, norovirus, seasonal influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, as well as a therapeutic vaccine for human papillomavirus.

 

Corporate History and Reorganization

 

Vaxart Biosciences, Inc. was originally incorporated in California in March 2004, under the name West Coast Biologicals, Inc. We changed its name to Vaxart, Inc. in July 2007, and reincorporated in the state of Delaware.

 

On February 13, 2018, we completed a business combination with Aviragen Therapeutics, Inc.(“Aviragen”), a publicly traded company. Under the terms of the agreement and plan of merger and reorganization, dated October 27, 2017, Vaxart, Inc. survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of Aviragen and changed its name to Vaxart Biosciences, Inc. and Aviragen changed its name to Vaxart, Inc. Our common stock subsequently began trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “VXRT.”

 

Our corporate headquarters and laboratory are located at 385 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 9A, South San Francisco, California 94080, and our telephone number is (650) 550-3500. We maintain a website at https://www.vaxart.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus supplement solely as an inactive textual reference.

 

1

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific risk factors described below and discussed in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 under the heading “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” and as described or may be described in any subsequent quarterly report on Form 10-Q under the heading “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” as well as in any applicable prospectus supplement and contained or to be contained in our filings with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus, or any applicable prospectus supplement. For a description of these reports and documents, and information about where you can find them, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” If any of the risks or uncertainties described in our SEC filings or any prospectus supplement or any additional risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our securities could decline and you might lose all or part of the value of your investment.

 

Our development of a COVID-19 vaccine candidate is at an early stage. We may be unable to produce an effective vaccine that successfully immunizes humans against SARS-CoV-2 in a timely manner, if at all.

 

We are in the business of developing oral vaccines that are administered by tablet rather than by injection. In response to the global outbreak of COVID-19, in January 2020, we announced that we had initiated a program to develop a coronavirus vaccine candidate based on Vector-Adjuvant-Antigen Standardized Technology Platform, our proprietary oral vaccine platform (“VAAST”). However, our development of the vaccine is in early stages, and we may be unable to produce an effective vaccine that successfully immunizes humans against SARS-CoV-2 in a timely manner, if at all.

 

Since that time, we entered into an agreement with Emergent BioSolutions Inc. (“Emergent”), whereby Emergent will deploy its molecule-to-market contract development and manufacturing (“CDMO”) services to help develop and manufacture our experimental oral COVID-19 vaccine. We also contracted with KindredBio to manufacture bulk vaccine under cGMP to complement the manufacturing capacity of partner Emergent. However, if we are unsuccessful in maintaining our relationships with these and other critical third parties, our ability to develop our oral COVID-19 vaccine candidate and consequently compete in the marketplace could be impaired, and our results of operations may suffer. Even if we are successful, we cannot assure you that these relationships will result in successful development and commercialization of our oral COVID-19 vaccine candidate.

 

In addition, in June 2020, we signed a Memorandum of Understanding with AMS affirming the parties’ intent to establish AMS as a resource for lyophilization development and large-scale manufacturing including tableting and enteric coating for our oral COVID-19 vaccine. AMS is expected to assign dedicated resources and equipment for the scale up and commercial production of the vaccine upon entering a definitive agreement. However, we have not yet entered into any such definitive agreement with AMS, and we may not be able to reach a definitive agreement with AMS on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Even if we are able to establish a definitive agreement with AMS, reliance on them entails additional risks, including (i) our reliance on AMS for regulatory compliance and quality assurance, a possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by AMS; (ii) the possible misappropriation of our proprietary information, including trade secrets and know-how; and (iii) the possible termination or nonrenewal of the agreement by AMS at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us. AMS may not be able to comply with cGMP, regulations or similar regulatory requirements. Our failure, or the failure of AMS, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including clinical holds, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of product candidates or products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our potential COVID-19 vaccine.

 

We are committing financial resources to the development of a COVID-19 vaccine, which may cause delays in or otherwise negatively impact our other development programs. In addition, our management and scientific teams have dedicated substantial efforts to our COVID-19 vaccine development. As of the date of this prospectus, we have 14 full-time employees, which may make us more reliant on our individual employees than companies with a greater number of employees. If we fail to attract and retain management and scientific personnel, we may be unable to successfully produce, develop and commercialize our vaccine candidates.

 

In addition, the positive preclinical results for our COVID-19 vaccine candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage human clinical trials, which could be one of a number of factors that may delay or prevent us from receiving regulatory approval of our vaccine candidate. We may not be successful in developing a vaccine, or another party may be successful in producing a more efficacious vaccine or other treatment for COVID-19, which may also lead to the diversion of governmental and quasi-governmental funding away from us and toward other companies.

 

The regulatory regime governing Operation Warp Speed is uncertain, and new regulations or policies may materially adversely affect our business and the development of our COVID-19 vaccine candidate.

 

On June 26, 2020, we announced that our oral COVID-19 vaccine has been selected to participate in a non-human primate challenge study, organized and funded by Operation Warp Speed. The study is designed to demonstrate the efficacy of our oral COVID-19 vaccine candidate.

 

Operation Warp Speed is a public-private partnership among the Department of Health and Human Services, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority; the Department of Defense; and private companies and firms, to facilitate, at an unprecedented pace, the development, manufacturing, and distribution of vaccines, therapeutics and other countermeasures to address the COVID-19 epidemic throughout the world.

 

The rules and regulations governing Operation Warp Speed are uncertain and may rapidly evolve as the program progresses. Such rules or regulations may negatively impact our plans to develop our COVID-19 vaccine candidate and failure by us to comply with any laws, rules and regulations, some of which may not exist yet or are subject to interpretation and may be subject to change, could result in a variety of adverse consequences, including civil penalties and fines. Efforts to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. 

 

In addition, we cannot assure you that Operation Warp Speed will have a positive impact on our financial results.

 

2

 

If a coronavirus outbreak occurs and is classified as a pandemic or large epidemic by public health authorities, it is possible that one or more government entities may take actions that directly or indirectly have the effect of abrogating some of our rights or opportunities. If we were to develop a COVID-19 vaccine, the economic value of such a vaccine to us could be limited.

 

Various government entities, including the U.S. government, are offering incentives, grants and contracts to encourage additional investment by commercial organizations into preventative and therapeutic agents against coronavirus, which may have the effect of increasing the number of competitors and/or providing advantages to known competitors. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully establish a competitive market share for our COVID-19 vaccine, if any.

 

The novel coronavirus could adversely impact our preclinical studies and clinical trials.

 

Since the initial report of a novel strain of coronavirus, COVID-19, in Wuhan, China in December 2019, COVID-19 has spread to multiple countries, including the United States.  We have active and planned preclinical studies and clinical trial sites in the United States. As COVID-19 continues to spread around the globe, we may experience disruptions that could severely impact our planned preclinical studies and clinical trials, including our preclinical studies for our SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and our clinical trials for our vaccine candidate for the GI.1 and GII.4 norovirus strains.

 

Effects on our preclinical study and clinical trial programs include, but are not limited to:

 

 

delays in procuring animals for our preclinical studies;

 

 

delays or difficulties in enrolling participants in our clinical trials;

 

 

delays or difficulties in preclinical and clinical site initiation, including difficulties in establishing appropriate and safe social distancing and other safeguards at preclinical and clinical sites;

 

 

interruption of key preclinical study and clinical trial activities, such as preclinical and clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations to on-site monitoring visits and travel imposed or recommended by research institutions, federal or state governments, employers and others;

 

 

limitations in employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, including because of sickness of employees or their families, delays or difficulties in conducting site visits and other required travel, and the desire of employees to avoid contact with large groups of people;

 

 

delays in receiving approval from local and central institutional review boards to initiate or continue our planned preclinical studies and clinical trials; and

 

 

delays in initiating or continuing preclinical and/or clinical trials due to delays and restrictions with the shipment of investigational product and ancillary supplies to the testing labs or clinical research sites.

 

The global outbreak of COVID-19 continues to rapidly evolve. The extent to which COVID-19 may impact our preclinical studies and clinical trials will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence. Factors such as the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, travel restrictions and social distancing in the United States and other countries, business closures or business disruptions and the effectiveness of actions taken in the United States and other countries to contain and treat the disease will impact our preclinical studies and clinical trials.

 

The price of our common stock has been volatile and fluctuates substantially, which could result in substantial losses for stockholders.

 

Our stock price has been, and in the future may be, subject to substantial volatility. As a result of this volatility, our stockholders could incur substantial losses. The stock market in general, and the market for biopharmaceutical companies in particular, has experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above your initial purchase price.

 

The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including the results of clinical trials of our products or those of our competitors, regulatory or legal developments, developments, disputes, or other matters concerning patent applications, issued patents, or other proprietary rights, our ability to recruit and retain key personnel, public announcements by us or our strategic collaborators regarding the progress of our development candidates similar public announcements by our competitors, and other factors set forth in this prospectus and in our reports filed with the SEC.

 

If our quarterly or annual results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Furthermore, any quarterly or annual fluctuations in our results may, in turn, cause the price of our stock to fluctuate substantially. We believe that period-to-period comparisons of our results are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance.

 

In addition, public statements by us, government agencies, the media or others relating to the coronavirus outbreak (including regarding efforts to develop a coronavirus vaccine) have in the past resulted, and may in the future result, in significant fluctuations in our stock price. Given the global focus on the coronavirus outbreak, any information in the public arena on this topic, whether or not accurate, could have an outsized impact (either positive or negative) on our stock price. Information related to our development, manufacturing and distribution efforts with respect to our vaccine candidates, or information regarding such efforts by competitors with respect to their potential vaccines, may also impact our stock price.

 

Our stock price is likely to continue to be volatile and subject to significant price and volume fluctuations in response to market and other factors, including the other factors discussed in our filings incorporated by reference herein or in future periodic reports; variations in our quarterly operating results from our expectations or those of securities analysts or investors; downward revisions in securities analysts’ estimates; and announcement by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments.

 

3

 

THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities.

 

A prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference.

 

This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

We may sell the securities directly to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents, dealers or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

 

the name of those agents or underwriters;

 

 

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

 

details regarding options to purchase additional securities, if any; and

 

 

the net proceeds to us.

 

Common Stock

 

We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders. Subject to any preferences of any of our preferred stock that may be outstanding, holders of our common stock are entitled to dividends when and if declared by our board of directors.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Our board of directors has the authority, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series, and to fix or alter the rights, preferences and privileges of the preferred stock, along with any limitations or restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences of each class or series of preferred stock.

 

Each series of preferred stock, if issued, will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock.

 

Warrants

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock, in one or more series, from time to time. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreement and warrant certificate that contain the terms of the warrants. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering before the issuance of the related series of warrants.

 

We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue. Warrants may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

 

4

 

Debt Securities

 

We may offer secured or unsecured obligations in the form of one or more series of debt securities, which may be senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations. Any subordinated debt securities generally will be entitled to payment only after payment of our senior debt. Senior debt generally includes all debt for money borrowed by us, except debt that is stated in the instrument governing the terms of that debt to be not senior to, or to have the same rank in right of payment as, or to be expressly junior to, the subordinated debt securities. We may issue debt securities that are convertible into shares of our common stock or preferred stock.

 

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture, as supplemented by a resolution of our board of directors, an officer’s certificate or a supplemental indenture, between us and a trustee. We have summarized the general features of the debt securities to be governed by the indenture. The indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. We encourage you to read the indenture. Instructions on how you can get copies of this document are provided under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

Purchase Contracts

 

We may issue purchase contracts for the purchase or sale of:

 

 

debt or equity securities issued by us or securities of third parties, a basket of such securities, an index or indices or such securities;

 

 

or any combination of the above as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement;

 

 

currencies; or

 

 

commodities.

 

Each purchase contract will entitle the holder thereof to purchase or sell, and obligate us to sell or purchase, on specified dates, such securities, currencies or commodities at a specified purchase price, which may be based on a formula, all as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may, however, satisfy our obligations, if any, with respect to any purchase contract by delivering the cash value of such purchase contract or the cash value of the property otherwise deliverable or, in the case of purchase contracts on underlying currencies, by delivering the underlying currencies, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will also specify the methods by which the holders may purchase or sell such securities, currencies or commodities and any acceleration, cancellation or termination provisions or other provisions relating to the settlement of a purchase contract.

 

The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders thereof or vice versa, which payments may be deferred to the extent set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, and those payments may be unsecured or prefunded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require the holders thereof to secure their obligations in a specified manner to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Alternatively, purchase contracts may require holders to satisfy their obligations thereunder when the purchase contracts are issued. Our obligation to settle such pre- paid purchase contracts on the relevant settlement date may constitute indebtedness. Accordingly, pre- paid purchase contracts will be issued under the applicable indenture.

 

Units

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other classes of securities issued by us as described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements relating to:

 

 

our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates and clinical results and trial data (including timing for and plans with respect to the COVID-19 vaccine product candidates and Operation Warp Speed and the non-human primate challenge study);

 

 

our intent to enter into a definitive agreement with AMS on terms acceptable to us, if at all;

 

 

preliminary estimates for our second quarter financial results;

 

 

our ability to obtain, maintain and enforce necessary patent and other intellectual property protection;

 

 

expectations relating to our relationship with Emergent and KindredBio, including each company’s ability to produce bulk vaccines under cGMP and the timing and capacity thereof;

 

 

potential partnership opportunities;

 

 

expectations regarding the future contributions of our management team;

 

 

the ability of our management team to build out the Company drive sustainable growth and value creation;

 

 

our potential role in the reopening of the United States, and the world;

 

 

our ability to manufacture vaccine tablets;

 

 

the expected timing of the first phase 1 study;

 

 

expectations regarding our lead COVID-19 vaccine candidate;

 

 

our expectations regarding the effectiveness and convenience of any COVID-19 vaccine;

 

 

the use of proceeds from this offering; and

 

 

our expectations with respect to the important advantages we believe our oral vaccine platform can offer over injectable alternatives.

 

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail many of these risks in the section titled “Risk Factors”, in any prospectus supplement and free writing prospectuses we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments.

 

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

You should read this prospectus, together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements. 

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Except as described in any prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including manufacturing expenses, clinical trial expenses, research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to in-license, invest in or acquire businesses or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses of the proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus. Accordingly, we will retain broad discretion over the use of such proceeds. Pending the use of the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

The following summary description of our common stock is based on the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended from time to time, and amended and restated bylaws and the applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law. This information is qualified entirely by reference to the applicable provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law.

 

General

 

Our authorized capital stock consists of (i) 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share and (ii) 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of June 30, 2020, there were 96,140,661 shares of our common stock and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.

 

The following is a summary of the material provisions of the common stock provided for in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended from time to time, and amended and restated bylaws.

 

Common Stock

 

Voting

 

Our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, except that directors will be elected by a plurality of votes cast. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors are able to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they so choose.

 

Dividends

 

Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds. We have never paid cash dividends and have no present intention to pay cash dividends.

 

Liquidation

 

In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

 

Rights and Preferences

 

Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

 

Fully Paid and Nonassessable

 

All of our outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and nonassessable.

 

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Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of Our Charter Documents and Delaware Law

 

Delaware Anti-Takeover Law

 

We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, or Section 203. Section 203 generally prohibits a public Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless:

 

 

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

 

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding upon consummation of the transaction, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding (1) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidential-ly whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

 

on or subsequent to the consummation of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

Section 203 defines a business combination to include:

 

 

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

 

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;

 

 

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder;

 

 

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder; and

 

 

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

 

In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.

 

Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

 

Provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change-in-control or change in our management, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares or transactions that our stockholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Among other things, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws:

 

 

permit our board of directors to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate (including the right to approve an acquisition or other change in control);

 

 

provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution adopted by a majority of the board of directors;

 

 

provide that all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law or subject to the rights of holders of preferred stock as designated from time to time, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;

 

 

require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders or by action taken by written consent;

 

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provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide notice in writing in a timely manner and also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice; and

 

 

provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the chairman of the board, the president or by our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors (whether or not there exist any vacancies).

 

Nasdaq Capital Market Listing

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “VXRT.”

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE DEBT SECURITIES

 

As of the date of this prospectus, we have no debt securities issued and outstanding.

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities we offer under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below.

 

We will issue notes under an indenture, which we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. Any indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. You should read the summary below, the applicable prospectus supplement and the provisions of the applicable indenture and any related security documents, if any, in their entirety before investing in our debt securities.

 

We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

 

 

the title;

 

 

the principal amount being offered, and if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount out-standing;

 

 

any limit on the amount that may be issued;

 

 

whether or not we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, and if so, the terms and who the depository will be;

 

 

the maturity date;

 

 

the principal amount due at maturity, and whether the debt securities will be issued with an original issue discount;

 

 

whether and under what circumstances, if any, we will pay additional amounts on any debt securities held by a person who is not a United States person for tax purposes, and whether we can redeem the debt securities if we have to pay such additional amounts;

 

 

the annual interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

 

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

 

the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

 

 

the place where payments will be payable;

 

 

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

 

 

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

 

the date, if any, after which the conditions upon which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, re-deem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemptions provisions;

 

 

the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

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whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

 

whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness, issuing additional securities, or entering into a merger, consolidation or sale of our business;

 

 

a discussion of any material or special United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities;

 

 

information describing any book-entry features;

 

 

provisions for a sinking fund purchase or other analogous fund, if any;

 

 

any provisions for payment of additional amounts for taxes and any provision for redemption, if we must pay such additional amount with respect to any debt security;

 

 

whether the debt securities are to be offered at a price such that they will be deemed to be offered at an “original issue discount” as defined in paragraph (a) of Section 1273 of the Internal Revenue Code;

 

 

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

 

the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, any other of our securities or securities of a third party, and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option;

 

 

events of default;

 

 

whether we and/or the debenture trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders;

 

 

the form of debt security and how it may be exchanged and transferred;

 

 

descriptions of the debenture trustee and paying agent, and the method of payments; and

 

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, including any additional events of default or covenants provided with respect to the debt securities, and any terms which may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Specific indentures will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus, or as an exhibit to a report filed under the Exchange Act, incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock, in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.

 

We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering before the issuance of the related series of warrants. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses, and the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

 

General

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including:

 

 

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

 

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

 

if applicable, the number of warrants issued with each share of common stock or preferred stock, or with the principal amount of any debt security;

 

 

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related shares will be separately transferable;

 

 

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

 

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

 

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

 

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of shares issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

 

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

 

the various factors considered in determining the exercise or conversion price of the warrants;

 

 

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified; and

 

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon such exercise, including the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights:

 

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Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

Holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent.

 

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the shares purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

 

Governing Law

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Delaware.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

 

Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

 

We may issue purchase contracts for the purchase or sale of:

 

 

debt or equity securities issued by us or securities of third parties, a basket of such securities, an index or indices or such securities;

 

 

or any combination of the above as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement;

 

 

currencies; or

 

 

commodities.

 

Each purchase contract will entitle the holder thereof to purchase or sell, and obligate us to sell or purchase, on specified dates, such securities, currencies or commodities at a specified purchase price, which may be based on a formula, all as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may, however, satisfy our obligations, if any, with respect to any purchase contract by delivering the cash value of such purchase contract or the cash value of the property otherwise deliverable or, in the case of purchase contracts on underlying currencies, by delivering the underlying currencies, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will also specify the methods by which the holders may purchase or sell such securities, currencies or commodities and any acceleration, cancellation or termination provisions or other provisions relating to the settlement of a purchase contract.

 

The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders thereof or vice versa, which payments may be deferred to the extent set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, and those payments may be unsecured or prefunded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require the holders thereof to secure their obligations in a specified manner to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Alternatively, purchase contracts may require holders to satisfy their obligations thereunder when the purchase contracts are issued. Our obligation to settle such pre- paid purchase contracts on the relevant settlement date may constitute indebtedness. Accordingly, pre- paid purchase contracts will be issued under the applicable indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other classes of securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The units may be issued under unit agreements to be entered into between us and a unit agent, as detailed in the prospectus supplement relating to the units being offered. The prospectus supplement will describe:

 

 

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be held or transferred separately;

 

 

a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units;

 

 

a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units;

 

 

a discussion of material federal income tax considerations, if applicable; and

 

 

whether the units if issued as a separate security will be issued in fully registered or global form.

 

The descriptions of the units in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement are summaries of the material provisions of the applicable unit agreements. These descriptions do not restate those unit agreements in their entirety and may not contain all the information that you may find useful. We urge you to read the applicable unit agreements because they, and not the summaries, define your rights as holders of the units. For more information, please review the forms of the relevant unit agreements, which will be filed with the SEC promptly after the offering of units and will be available as described in the section titled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

 

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depository or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities.

 

As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

 

Book-Entry Holders

 

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

 

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

 

As a result, investors in a book-entry security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not holders, of the securities.

 

Street Name Holders

 

We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

 

For securities held in street name, we will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

 

Legal Holders

 

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with depositary participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so.

 

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Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

 

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

 

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

 

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

 

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

 

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

 

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

 

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

  

Global Securities

 

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

 

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the Depository Trust Company, or DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

 

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

 

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

Special Considerations for Global Securities

 

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

 

An investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below.

 

 

An investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above.

 

18

 

 

An investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form.

 

 

An investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective.

 

 

The depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security. We and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security. We and the trustee also do not supervise the depositary in any way.

 

 

The depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well.

 

 

Financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities. There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries. 

 

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

 

In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate, and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

 

The global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

 

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

 

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

 

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

19

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell our securities covered by this prospectus in any of three ways (or in any combination):

 

 

to or through underwriters or dealers;

 

 

directly to one or more purchasers; or

 

 

through agents. 

 

We may distribute the securities:

 

 

from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

 

“at the market” offerings, as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, at negotiated prices, at prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices, including sales made directly on a national securities exchange or sales made through a market maker other than on an exchange or other similar offerings through sales agents; or

 

 

at negotiated prices.

 

Each time we offer and sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms of the offering, including:

 

 

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents;

 

 

the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them;

 

 

the purchase price of securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

 

any option under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

 

any underwriting discounts or commissions or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;

 

 

the public offering price of the securities;

 

 

any discounts, commissions or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

 

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time. We may determine the price or other terms of the securities offered under this prospectus by use of an electronic auction. We will describe how any auction will determine the price or any other terms, how potential investors may participate in the auction and the nature of the obligations of the underwriter, dealer or agent in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Underwriters or dealers may offer and sell the offered securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. If underwriters or dealers are used in the sale of any securities, the securities will be acquired by the underwriters or dealers for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions described above. The securities may be either offered to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters, or directly by underwriters or dealers. Generally, the underwriters’ or dealers’ obligations to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions precedent. The underwriters or dealers will be obligated to purchase all of the securities if they purchase any of the securities, unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe the nature of any such relationship in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter.

 

20

 

We may sell the securities through agents from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities and any commissions we pay to them. Generally, any agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment. We may authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers by certain purchasers to purchase the securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus supplement will set forth any commissions we pay for solicitation of these contracts.

 

Agents, dealers and underwriters may be entitled to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribution with respect to payments which the agents, dealers or underwriters may be required to make in respect thereof. Agents, dealers and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

 

Any underwriter may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. This short sales position may involve either “covered” short sales or “naked” short sales. Covered short sales are short sales made in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ over-allotment option to purchase additional securities in the relevant offering. The underwriters may close out any covered short position either by exercising their over-allotment option or by purchasing securities in the open market. To determine how they will close the covered short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of securities available for purchase in the open market, as compared to the price at which they may purchase securities through the over-allotment option. Naked short sales are short sales in excess of the over-allotment option. The underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing securities in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that, in the open market after pricing, there may be downward pressure on the price of the securities that could adversely affect investors who purchase securities in the offering. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security for the purpose of fixing the price of the security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a covering transaction to cover short positions.

 

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock, preferred stock, warrants and debt securities, as applicable on the Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded.

 

Similar to other purchase transactions, an underwriter’s purchase to cover the syndicate short sales or to stabilize the market price of our securities may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our securities or preventing or mitigating a decline in the market price of our securities. As a result, the price of our securities may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. The imposition of a penalty bid might also have an effect on the price of the securities if it discourages resales of the securities.

 

Neither we nor any underwriter makes any representation or prediction as to the effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of the securities. If such transactions are commenced, they may be discontinued without notice at any time.

 

21

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the securities being offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Thompson Hine LLP, New York, New York. Any underwriters will also be advised about the validity of the securities and other legal matters by their own counsel, which will be named in the prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

OUM & Co. LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, as set forth in their report which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our consolidated financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on OUM & Co. LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

The consolidated financial statements of Vaxart, Inc. as of December 31, 2018, and for the year ended December 31, 2018, have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing. The audit report covering the December 31, 2018 consolidated financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph that that states that the Company has experienced losses and negative cash flows from operations since its inception, has an accumulated deficit, and has debt obligations, which raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

22

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus is part of an automatic shelf registration statement that we have filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information in the registration statement and its exhibits. For further information with respect to us and the securities offered by this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and its exhibits. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or any other document referred to are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, we refer you to the copy of the contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. Each of these statements is qualified in all respects by this reference. The SEC maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy statements, and other information about registrants, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, the SEC’s website is not incorporated by reference in, and is not part of, this prospectus or any prospectus supplement.

 

We are subject to the information and periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and we file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. We maintain a website at https://www.vaxart.com. You may access our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act with the SEC free of charge at our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference in, and is not part of, this prospectus.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or free writing prospectus provided to you in connection with this offering, or in any other document we subsequently file with the SEC that also is incorporated by reference in this prospectus, modifies or supersedes the original statement.

 

The following documents filed with the SEC are hereby incorporated by reference in this prospectus:

 

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 19, 2020; 

 

 

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, filed with the SEC on May 12, 2020;

 

23

 

 

our Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments thereto, filed with the SEC on January 2, 2020,  March 2, 2020,  March 19, 2020,  April 14, 2020,  April 29, 2020,  June 9, 2020,  June 15, 2020,  June 23, 2020, and June 30, 2020;

 

 

the portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A that are deemed to have been “filed” with the SEC on April 24, 2020;

 

 

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 10, filed with the SEC on May 4, 1970, as amended by our Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 000-04829) filed with the SEC on August 15, 2003.

 

All reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be part hereof from the date of filing of such reports and other documents.

 

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference, including exhibits to these documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at 385 Oyster Point Boulevard, Suite 9A, South San Francisco, California, 94080 telephoning us at (650) 550-3500.

 

The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC and state the address of that site (http://www.sec.gov). In addition, we maintain a website at www.vaxart.com. Information contained in our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

Notwithstanding the statements in the preceding paragraphs, no document, report or exhibit (or portion of any of the foregoing) or any other information that we have “furnished” or may in the future “furnish” to the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act shall be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

In accordance with Rule 412 of the Securities Act, any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement.

 

24

 

PROSPECTUS

Up to $100,000,000 of Shares 

 

Common Stock

 

 


We have entered into a sales agreement with SVB Leerink LLC (“SVB Leerink”) and B. Riley FBR, Inc. (“B. Riley FBR”) as sales agents, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time through SVB Leerink and B. Riley FBR acting as our agents.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (the “Securities Act”). SVB Leerink and B. Riley FBR will act as sales agents on a best efforts basis and will use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between the sales agents and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

The sales agents will be entitled to compensation of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. In connection with the sale of our common stock on our behalf. Each sales agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the sales agents will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the sales agents with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

  

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “VXRT.” On July 7, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market was $8.87. As of June 30, 2020, there were 96,140,661 shares of our common stock outstanding.

 

The preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts, and units described in this prospectus have not been approved for listing on any market or exchange, and we have not made any application for such listing.

 

  

Investing in our securities involves risks. See the “Risk Factors” on page SA-4 of this prospectus and any similar section contained in the applicable prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

SVB Leerink

B. RILEY FBR

 

 

The date of this prospectus is July 8, 2020.

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

SA-i

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY SA-1

RISK FACTORS

SA-4

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

SA-8

USE OF PROCEEDS

SA-9

DIVIDEND POLICY

SA-10

DILUTION

SA-11

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

SA-12

LEGAL MATTERS

SA-13

EXPERTS

SA-13

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

SA-13

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

SA-13

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) utilizing a “shelf” registration process as a “well-known seasoned issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. By using a shelf registration statement, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

 

We provide information to you about this offering of shares of our common stock in two separate documents that are bound together: (1) this prospectus, which describes the specific details regarding this offering; and (2) the accompanying base prospectus, which provides general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to this “prospectus,” we are referring to both documents combined. If information in this prospectus is inconsistent with the accompanying base prospectus, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. However, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the earlier dates.

 

We have not, and the sales agents have not, authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we or the sales agents have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not, and the sales agents are not, making an offer to sell or soliciting an offer to buy our securities in any jurisdiction where an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the market and industry data presented in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference, these estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

 

You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference.”

 

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

 

SA-i

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary provides a general overview of selected information and does not contain all of the information you should consider before buying our common stock. Therefore, you should read the entire prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering carefully, including the information incorporated by reference, before deciding to invest in our common stock. Investors should carefully consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” beginning on page SA-4 of this prospectus and incorporated by reference to our annual report on Form 10-K and our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q.

 

Our Company

 

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on developing oral tablet vaccines designed to generate mucosal and systemic immune responses that protect against a wide range of infectious diseases and has the potential to provide sterilizing immunity for diseases such as coronavirus disease 19 (“COVID-19”). We believe that a room temperature stable tablet vaccine is easier to distribute, store and administer than injectable vaccines and may provide significantly faster response to a pandemic than injectable vaccines, enabling a greater portion of the population to be protected. Our development programs include oral tablet vaccines that are designed to protect against coronavirus, norovirus, seasonal influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, as well as a therapeutic vaccine for human papillomavirus.

 

Recent Developments

 

Certain Second Quarter Preliminary Financial Estimates

 

Our consolidated financial statements as of, and for the three and six months ended, June 30, 2020 are not yet available. Accordingly, the information presented below reflects our preliminary estimates subject to the completion of our financial closing procedures and any adjustments that may result from the completion of the quarterly review of our consolidated financial statements. As a result, these preliminary estimates may differ from the actual results that will be reflected in our consolidated financial statements for the quarter when they are completed and publicly disclosed. These preliminary estimates may change and those changes may be material.

 

Our expectations with respect to our unaudited results for the period discussed below are based upon management estimates and are the responsibility of management. Our independent registered public accounting firm has not audited, reviewed or performed any procedures with respect to these preliminary results and, accordingly, does not express an opinion or any other form of assurance about them.

 

We estimate that our cash and cash equivalents, as of June 30, 2020, will be approximately $44.4 million, compared to $29.9 million and $13.5 million as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. The increase is partially due to $14.4 million received from warrant and option exercises during the three-months ending June 30, 2020, and $10.3 million during the three-months ending March 31, 2020.

 

Because these financial results are only preliminary estimates and are based on information available to management as of the date of this prospectus, these expectations could change. See “Risks Related to the Offering — Our preliminary financial estimates represent management's current estimates and are subject to change.”

 

Our actual financial results as of, and for the three and six months ended, June 30, 2020 are subject to the completion of our financial statements as of and for such period, and are not indicative of future performance. Our independent registered public accountants have not audited, reviewed or performed any procedures with respect to such preliminary estimates and accordingly do not express an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto.

 

Complete quarterly results as of, and for the three and six months ended, June 30, 2020 will be included in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020.

 

Market Capitalization

 

On June 30, 2020, the worldwide market value of our outstanding voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates $842,046,746, based on 95,146,525 non-affiliate shares outstanding and a closing price of $8.85 on The Nasdaq Capital Market.

 

Clinical and Regulatory Developments

 

 

We previously disclosed in our Form 10-Q for the first quarter of 2020 that we entered into a research collaboration agreement with Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V. (“Janssen”) to evaluate our proprietary oral vaccine platform for the Janssen universal influenza vaccine program, and that results were expected in the first half of 2020. Consistent with such expectations, we confirmed that the study has been completed and that a report is being compiled for Janssen.

 

SA-1

 

 

On May 20, 2020, we announced that we elected our lead COVID-19 vaccine candidate to move into clinical trials and has contracted with KindredBio to manufacture bulk vaccine under current good manufacturing practices (“cGMP”) to complement the manufacturing capacity of partner Emergent BioSolutions Inc. See “Risks Factors — Our pursuit of a COVID-19 vaccine candidate is at an early stage. We may be unable to produce an effective vaccine that successfully immunizes humans against SARS-CoV-2 in a timely manner, if at all.”

 

 

On June 25, 2020 we announced that we signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Attwill Medical Solutions Sterilflow, LP (“AMS”) affirming the parties’ intent to establish AMS as a resource for lyophilization development and large-scale manufacturing including tableting and enteric coating for our oral COVID-19 vaccine. AMS is expected to assign dedicated resources and equipment for the scale up and commercial production of the vaccine upon entering a definitive agreement. However, we have not yet entered into such a definitive agreement with AMS, and we may not be able to reach a definitive agreement with AMS on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Even if we are able to establish a definitive agreement with AMS, reliance on them entails additional risks. See “Risks Factors — Our pursuit of a COVID-19 vaccine candidate is at an early stage. We may be unable to produce an effective vaccine that successfully immunizes humans against SARS-CoV-2 in a timely manner, if at all.”

 

 

On June 26, 2020, we announced that our oral COVID-19 vaccine was selected to participate in a non-human primate challenge study, organized and funded by Operation Warp Speed, a new national program aiming to provide substantial quantities of safe and effective vaccine for Americans by January 2021. The study is designed to demonstrate the efficacy of our oral COVID-19 vaccine candidate. Operation Warp Speed is a public-private partnership initiated by the federal government to facilitate, at an unprecedented pace, the development, manufacturing, and distribution of vaccines, therapeutics and other countermeasures to address the COVID-19 epidemic throughout the world. The rules and regulations governing Operation Warp Speed are uncertain and may rapidly evolve as the program progresses. See “Risks Factors — The regulatory regime governing Operation Warp Speed is uncertain, and new regulations or policies may materially adversely affect our business and the development of our COVID-19 vaccine candidate.” Our oral COVID-19 vaccine candidate may not prove to be efficacious, and we may be unable to produce an effective vaccine that successfully immunizes humans against SARS-CoV-2 in a timely matter, if at all. In addition, we cannot assure you that Operation Warp Speed will have a positive impact on our financial results.

 

Leadership Update

 

On June 14, 2020, Wouter W. Latour, M.D. resigned his employment as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company. Dr. Latour remained a director and retained his title as Chairman of our Board of Directors. The Board appointed Andrei Floroiu as Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Floroiu had served as a director since April 2020 and will continue on the board while serving as Chief Executive Officer.

 

Corporate History and Reorganization

 

Vaxart Biosciences, Inc. was originally incorporated in California in March 2004, under the name West Coast Biologicals, Inc. We changed its name to Vaxart, Inc. in July 2007, and reincorporated in the state of Delaware.

 

On February 13, 2018, we completed a business combination with Aviragen Therapeutics, Inc. (“Aviragen”), a publicly traded company. Under the terms of the agreement and plan of merger and reorganization, dated October 27, 2017, Vaxart, Inc. survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of Aviragen and changed its name to Vaxart Biosciences, Inc. and Aviragen changed its name to Vaxart, Inc. Our common stock subsequently began trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “VXRT.”

 

Our corporate headquarters and laboratory are located at 385 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 9A, South San Francisco, California 94080, and our telephone number is (650) 550-3500. We maintain a website at https://www.vaxart.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

 

SA-2

 

The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000.

   
Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering Assuming all $100,000,000 of shares of our common stock are sold in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $8.87 per share, the last reported sale price of our common shares on The Nasdaq Capital Market on July 7, 2020, we would have had 107,414,618 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020.

 

 

Manner of offering

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agents, SVB Leerink and B. Riley FBR. See “Plan of Distribution” on page SA-12.

 

 

Use of proceeds

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to support the clinical and preclinical development of our product candidates, to conduct clinical trials, to manufacture our products, and for general corporate and working capital purposes. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds.” 

 

 

Risk factors

Investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should read the section titled “Risk Factors,” in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.

 

 

Nasdaq Capital Market symbol

“VXRT”

 

 

The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 96,140,661 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, and excludes:

 

 

6,382,232 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted-average exercise price of $2.22 per share;

 

 

411,000 shares issuable upon the vesting of outstanding performance-based restricted stock units, in the event they vest;

 

 

1,942,654 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants with a weighted-average exercise price of $2.02 per share; and

 

 

1,620,028 shares reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan.

   

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes no further exercise of outstanding options or warrants. 

 

SA-3

 

RISK FACTORS

 

You should consider carefully the risks described below and discussed under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2020, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), each of which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus , and the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering before you make a decision to invest in our securities. If any of the following events actually occur, our business, operating results, prospects or financial condition could be harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline and you may lose all or part of your investment. The risks below and incorporated by reference in this prospectus are not the only ones we face. Additional risks not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

Risks Related to the Offering

 

Our preliminary financial estimates represent management's current estimates and are subject to change.

 

The preliminary financial information contained in “Prospectus Summary - Recent Developments - Certain Second Quarter Preliminary Financial Estimates” are only preliminary estimates and are based on information available to management as of the date of this prospectus and these estimates could change. Our actual financial results as of, and for the three and six months ended, June 30, 2020 are subject to the completion of our financial statements as of, and for such period. Such actual financial results will not be available until after this offering is completed and, consequently, will not be available to you prior to investing in this offering. Our actual financial results as of, and for the three and six months ended, June 30, 2020 may differ materially from the preliminary financial results we have provided as a result of the completion of our final adjustments, review by our independent registered public accountants and other developments arising between now and the time that our financial results for such period are finalized. Our independent registered public accountants have not audited, reviewed or performed any procedures with respect to such preliminary estimates and accordingly do not express an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto. Complete results as of, and for the three and six months ended, June 30, 2020 will be included in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020. See the other risks described in this section and “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” for additional information regarding factors that could result in differences between these preliminary and the actual financial results we will report for the quarter ended June 30, 2020.

 

The price of our common stock has been volatile and fluctuates substantially, which could result in substantial losses for stockholders.

 

Our stock price has been, and in the future may be, subject to substantial volatility. As a result of this volatility, our stockholders could incur substantial losses. The stock market in general, and the market for biopharmaceutical companies in particular, has experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above your initial purchase price.

 

The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including the results of clinical trials of our products or those of our competitors, regulatory or legal developments, developments, disputes, or other matters concerning patent applications, issued patents, or other proprietary rights, our ability to recruit and retain key personnel, public announcements by us or our strategic collaborators regarding the progress of our development candidates similar public announcements by our competitors, and other factors set forth in this prospectus and in our reports filed with the SEC.

 

If our quarterly or annual results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Furthermore, any quarterly or annual fluctuations in our results may, in turn, cause the price of our stock to fluctuate substantially. We believe that period-to-period comparisons of our results are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance.

 

In addition, public statements by us, government agencies, the media or others relating to the coronavirus outbreak (including regarding efforts to develop a coronavirus vaccine) have in the past resulted, and may in the future result, in significant fluctuations in our stock price. Given the global focus on the coronavirus outbreak, any information in the public arena on this topic, whether or not accurate, could have an outsized impact (either positive or negative) on our stock price. Information related to our development, manufacturing and distribution efforts with respect to our vaccine candidates, or information regarding such efforts by competitors with respect to their potential vaccines, may also impact our stock price.

 

Our stock price is likely to continue to be volatile and subject to significant price and volume fluctuations in response to market and other factors, including the other factors discussed in our filings incorporated by reference herein or in future periodic reports; variations in our quarterly operating results from our expectations or those of securities analysts or investors; downward revisions in securities analysts’ estimates; and announcement by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments.

 

If you purchase shares of our common stock sold in this offering, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to investors.

 

The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 11,273,957 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $8.87 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on July 7, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $100,000,000, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, new investors in this offering will incur immediate dilution of $7.70 per share. For a more detailed discussion of the foregoing, see the section entitled “Dilution” below. To the extent outstanding stock options or warrants are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors. In addition, to the extent we need to raise additional capital in the future and we issue additional shares of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock, our then existing stockholders may experience dilution and the new securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock offered in this offering.

 

SA-4

 

Our management team may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which you may not agree or in ways which may not yield a significant return.

 

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our net proceeds in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. The failure by our management to apply the proceeds from this offering effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline. 

 

Sales of a significant number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock.

 

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public markets could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of our common stock would have on the market price of our common stock.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

 

To raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

 

It is not possible to predict the actual number of shares we will sell under the sales agreement, or the gross proceeds resulting from those sales.

 

Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver instruction to the sales agents to sell shares of our common stock at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold through the sales agents after our instruction will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of our common stock during the sales period, the limits we set with the sales agents in any instruction to sell shares, and the demand for our common stock during the sales period. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate during this offering, it is not currently possible to predict the number of shares that will be sold or the gross proceeds to be raised in connection with those sales.

 

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings”, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

 

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold in this offering. In addition, subject to the final determination by our board of directors, there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

We do not anticipate that we will pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

The current expectation is that we will retain our future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be the sole source of gain, if any, for our stockholders.

 

Investing in our common stock may involve a high degree of risk.

 

The investments that we make in accordance with our investment objectives may result in a high amount of risk, resulting in a complete loss of principal, when compared to alternative investment options. Our investments may be highly speculative and aggressive, and therefore an investment in our common stock may not be suitable for someone with lower risk tolerance.

 

SA-5

 

Risks Related to our Business

 

Our development of a COVID-19 vaccine candidate is at an early stage. We may be unable to produce an effective vaccine that successfully immunizes humans against SARS-CoV-2 in a timely manner, if at all.

 

We are in the business of developing oral vaccines that are administered by tablet rather than by injection. In response to the global outbreak of COVID-19, in January 2020, we announced that we had initiated a program to develop a coronavirus vaccine candidate based on Vector-Adjuvant-Antigen Standardized Technology Platform, our proprietary oral vaccine platform (“VAAST”). However, our development of the vaccine is in early stages, and we may be unable to produce an effective vaccine that successfully immunizes humans against SARS-CoV-2 in a timely manner, if at all.

 

Since that time, we entered into an agreement with Emergent BioSolutions Inc. (“Emergent”), whereby Emergent will deploy its molecule-to-market contract development and manufacturing (“CDMO”) services to help develop and manufacture our experimental oral COVID-19 vaccine. We also contracted with KindredBio to manufacture bulk vaccine under cGMP to complement the manufacturing capacity of partner Emergent. However, if we are unsuccessful in maintaining our relationships with these and other critical third parties, our ability to develop our oral COVID-19 vaccine candidate and consequently compete in the marketplace could be impaired, and our results of operations may suffer. Even if we are successful, we cannot assure you that these relationships will result in successful development and commercialization of our oral COVID-19 vaccine candidate.

 

In addition, in June 2020, we signed a Memorandum of Understanding with AMS affirming the parties’ intent to establish AMS as a resource for lyophilization development and large-scale manufacturing including tableting and enteric coating for our oral COVID-19 vaccine. AMS is expected to assign dedicated resources and equipment for the scale up and commercial production of the vaccine upon entering a definitive agreement. However, we have not yet entered into any such definitive agreement with AMS, and we may not be able to reach a definitive agreement with AMS on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Even if we are able to establish a definitive agreement with AMS, reliance on them entails additional risks, including (i) our reliance on AMS for regulatory compliance and quality assurance, a possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by AMS; (ii) the possible misappropriation of our proprietary information, including trade secrets and know-how; and (iii) the possible termination or nonrenewal of the agreement by AMS at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us. AMS may not be able to comply with cGMP, regulations or similar regulatory requirements. Our failure, or the failure of AMS, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including clinical holds, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of product candidates or products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our potential COVID-19 vaccine.

 

We are committing financial resources to the development of a COVID-19 vaccine, which may cause delays in or otherwise negatively impact our other development programs. In addition, our management and scientific teams have dedicated substantial efforts to our COVID-19 vaccine development. As of the date of this prospectus, we have 14 full-time employees, which may make us more reliant on our individual employees than companies with a greater number of employees. If we fail to attract and retain management and scientific personnel, we may be unable to successfully produce, develop and commercialize our vaccine candidates.

 

In addition, the positive preclinical results for our COVID-19 vaccine candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage human clinical trials, which could be one of a number of factors that may delay or prevent us from receiving regulatory approval of our vaccine candidate. We may not be successful in developing a vaccine, or another party may be successful in producing a more efficacious vaccine or other treatment for COVID-19, which may also lead to the diversion of governmental and quasi-governmental funding away from us and toward other companies.

 

The regulatory regime governing Operation Warp Speed is uncertain, and new regulations or policies may materially adversely affect our business and the development of our COVID-19 vaccine candidate.

 

On June 26, 2020, we announced that our oral COVID-19 vaccine has been selected to participate in a non-human primate challenge study, organized and funded by Operation Warp Speed. The study is designed to demonstrate the efficacy of our oral COVID-19 vaccine candidate.

 

Operation Warp Speed is a public-private partnership among the Department of Health and Human Services, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority; the Department of Defense; and private companies and firms, to facilitate, at an unprecedented pace, the development, manufacturing, and distribution of vaccines, therapeutics and other countermeasures to address the COVID-19 epidemic throughout the world.

 

The rules and regulations governing Operation Warp Speed are uncertain and may rapidly evolve as the program progresses. Such rules or regulations may negatively impact our plans to develop our COVID-19 vaccine candidate and failure by us to comply with any laws, rules and regulations, some of which may not exist yet or are subject to interpretation and may be subject to change, could result in a variety of adverse consequences, including civil penalties and fines. Efforts to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. 

 

In addition, we cannot assure you that Operation Warp Speed will have a positive impact on our financial results.

 

SA-6

 

If a coronavirus outbreak occurs and is classified as a pandemic or large epidemic by public health authorities, it is possible that one or more government entities may take actions that directly or indirectly have the effect of abrogating some of our rights or opportunities. If we were to develop a COVID-19 vaccine, the economic value of such a vaccine to us could be limited.

 

Various government entities, including the U.S. government, are offering incentives, grants and contracts to encourage additional investment by commercial organizations into preventative and therapeutic agents against coronavirus, which may have the effect of increasing the number of competitors and/or providing advantages to known competitors. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully establish a competitive market share for our COVID-19 vaccine, if any.

 

The novel coronavirus could adversely impact our preclinical studies and clinical trials.

 

Since the initial report of a novel strain of coronavirus, COVID-19, in Wuhan, China in December 2019, COVID-19 has spread to multiple countries, including the United States. We have active and planned preclinical studies and clinical trial sites in the United States. As COVID-19 continues to spread around the globe, we may experience disruptions that could severely impact our planned preclinical studies and clinical trials, including our preclinical studies for our SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and our clinical trials for our vaccine candidate for the GI.1 and GII.4 norovirus strains.

 

Effects on our preclinical study and clinical trial programs include, but are not limited to:

 

 

delays in procuring animals for our preclinical studies;

 

 

delays or difficulties in enrolling participants in our clinical trials;

 

 

delays or difficulties in preclinical and clinical site initiation, including difficulties in establishing appropriate and safe social distancing and other safeguards at preclinical and clinical sites;

 

 

interruption of key preclinical study and clinical trial activities, such as preclinical and clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations to on-site monitoring visits and travel imposed or recommended by research institutions, federal or state governments, employers and others;

 

 

limitations in employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, including because of sickness of employees or their families, delays or difficulties in conducting site visits and other required travel, and the desire of employees to avoid contact with large groups of people;

 

 

delays in receiving approval from local and central institutional review boards to initiate or continue our planned preclinical studies and clinical trials; and

 

 

delays in initiating or continuing preclinical and/or clinical trials due to delays and restrictions with the shipment of investigational product and ancillary supplies to the testing labs or clinical research sites.

 

The global outbreak of COVID-19 continues to rapidly evolve. The extent to which COVID-19 may impact our preclinical studies and clinical trials will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence. Factors such as the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, travel restrictions and social distancing in the United States and other countries, business closures or business disruptions and the effectiveness of actions taken in the United States and other countries to contain and treat the disease will impact our preclinical studies and clinical trials.

 

SA-7

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements relating to:

 

 

our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates and clinical results and trial data (including timing for and plans with respect to the COVID-19 vaccine product candidates and Operation Warp Speed and the non-human primate challenge study);

 

 

preliminary estimates for our second quarter financial results;

 

 

our intent to enter into a definitive agreement with AMS on terms acceptable to us, if at all;

 

 

our ability to obtain, maintain and enforce necessary patent and other intellectual property protection;

 

 

expectations relating to our relationship with Emergent and KindredBio, including each company’s ability to produce bulk vaccines under cGMP and the timing and capacity thereof;

 

 

potential partnership opportunities;

 

 

expectations regarding the future contributions of our management team;

 

 

the ability of our management team to build out the Company drive sustainable growth and value creation;

 

 

our potential role in the reopening of the United States, and the world;

 

 

our ability to manufacture vaccine tablets;

 

 

the expected timing of the first phase 1 study;

 

 

expectations regarding our lead COVID-19 vaccine candidate;

 

 

our expectations regarding the effectiveness and convenience of any COVID-19 vaccine;

 

 

the use of proceeds from this offering; and

 

 

our expectations with respect to the important advantages we believe our oral vaccine platform can offer over injectable alternatives.

 

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail many of these risks in the section titled “Risk Factors”, in any free writing prospectuses we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments.

 

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus , and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

You should read this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus, together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements. 

 

SA-8

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $100,000,000 from time to time. The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with SVB Leerink and B. Riley FBR as a source of financing. We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses and capital expenditures.

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to support the clinical and preclinical development of our product candidates, to conduct clinical trials, to manufacture our products, and for general corporate and working capital purposes.

 

The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending the uses described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

 

SA-9

 

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

We have never declared or paid dividends on shares of our common stock. We intend to retain future earnings, if any, to support the development of our vaccine candidates and our business and therefore do not anticipate paying cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Payment of future dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors after taking into account various factors, including current financial condition, operating results and current and anticipated cash needs.

 

SA-10

 

DILUTION

 

If you invest in our securities, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the offering price and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.

 

Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020, was approximately $14.6 million, or $0.20 per share. After giving effect to pro forma adjustments for the exercise of 24,135,941 options and warrants between April 1, 2020 and June 30, 2020, for cash proceeds of approximately $14.4 million, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020, would have been approximately $29.0 million, or $0.30 per share. Net tangible book value is total tangible assets less total liabilities divided by the total number of outstanding shares of common stock.

 

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100,000,000 in this offering at an assumed offering price of $8.87, the last reported sale price of our common stock on July 7, 2020, and after deducting estimated commissions and offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020, would have been approximately $125.6 million, or $1.17 per share.

 

This represents an immediate increase in adjusted net tangible book value of $0.87 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $7.70 per share to investors purchasing common stock in this offering.

 

The following table illustrates this dilution per share to investors participating in this offering:

 

Assumed offering price per share

 

 

 

 

 

$

8.87

 

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020, after pro forma adjustments for options and warrants exercised

 

$

0.30

 

 

 

 

 

Increase in as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to existing investors

 

 

0.87

 

 

 

 

 

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.17

 

Dilution per share to new investors in this offering

 

 

 

 

 

$

7.70

 

 

The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $8.87 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100,000,000 is sold at that price, would increase our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $1.18 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors to $8.69 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $8.87 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100,000,000 is sold at that price, would cause our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to be $1.15 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors to $6.72 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

 

The above discussion and table based on 96,140,661 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, and excludes:

 

 

6,382,232 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted-average exercise price of $2.22 per share;

 

 

411,000 shares issuable upon the vesting of performance-based restricted stock units, in the event that they vest;

 

 

1,942,654 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants with a weighted-average exercise price of $2.02 per share; and

 

 

1,620,028 shares reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan.

 

The above illustration of dilution per share to investors participating in this offering assumes no further exercise of outstanding options or warrants.

 

To the extent that outstanding options are exercised or outstanding restricted stock units are settled, you may experience further dilution. We may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if at that time we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.

 

To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

SA-11

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION  

 

We have entered into a sales agreement with SVB Leerink and B. Riley FBR under which we may issue and sell our common stock from time to time through SVB Leerink and B. Riley FBR acting as sales agents. Sales of shares of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made by any method that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act. We may instruct the sales agents not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or the sales agents may suspend the offering of common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

 

The sales agents will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement as agreed upon by us and sales agents. Each time we wish to issue and sell common stock under the sales agreement, we will notify SVB Leerink or B. Riley FBR (each a “Designated Agent”) of the number of shares to be issued, the time period during which such sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of shares that may be sold in one day, any minimum price below which sales may not be made and other sales parameters as we deem appropriate. Once we have so instructed a Designated Agent, unless a Designated Agent declines to accept the terms of the notice, a Designated Agent has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of the sales agents under the sales agreement to sell our common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.

 

We will pay the sales agents commissions for their services in acting as agent in the sale of common stock at a commission rate equal to up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse the sales agents for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $150,000. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding commissions and reimbursements payable to SVB Leerink and B. Riley FBR under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $260,000.

 

Settlement for sales of common stock will generally occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and SVB Leerink and B. Riley FBR in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, each of the sales agents may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the sales agents may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the sales agents against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of all of our common stock subject to the sales agreement or (ii) termination of the sales agreement as provided therein.

 

SVB Leerink, B. Riley FBR and their affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees.

 

SA-12

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the securities being offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Thompson Hine LLP, New York, New York. Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts, is representing the sales agents in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

OUM & Co. LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, as set forth in their report which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our consolidated financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on OUM & Co. LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

The consolidated financial statements of Vaxart, Inc. as of December 31, 2018, and for the year ended December 31, 2018, have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing. The audit report covering the December 31, 2018 consolidated financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph that that states that the Company has experienced losses and negative cash flows from operations since its inception, has an accumulated deficit, and has debt obligations, which raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act, with respect to the securities being offered by this prospectus. This prospectus does not contain all of the information in the registration statement and its exhibits. For further information with respect to us and the securities offered by this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and its exhibits. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or any other document referred to are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, we refer you to the copy of the contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. Each of these statements is qualified in all respects by this reference. The SEC maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy statements, and other information about registrants, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, the SEC’s website is not incorporated by reference in, and is not part of, this prospectus.

 

We are subject to the information and periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and we file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. We maintain a website at https://www.vaxart.com. You may access our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act with the SEC free of charge at our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference in, and is not part of, this prospectus.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or free writing prospectus provided to you in connection with this offering, or in any other document we subsequently file with the SEC that also is incorporated by reference in this prospectus, modifies or supersedes the original statement.

 

The following documents filed with the SEC are hereby incorporated by reference in this prospectus:

 

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 19, 2020;

 

 

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, filed with the SEC on May 12, 2020;

 

 

our Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments thereto, filed with the SEC on January 2, 2020, March 2, 2020, March 19, 2020April 14, 2020April 29, 2020June 9, 2020June 15, 2020June 23, 2020 and June 30, 2020;

 

 

the portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A that are deemed to have been “filed” with the SEC on April 24, 2020; and

 

SA-13

 

 

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 10, filed with the SEC on May 4, 1970, as amended by our Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 000-04829) filed with the SEC on August 15, 2003.

 

All reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be part hereof from the date of filing of such reports and other documents.

 

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference, including exhibits to these documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at 385 Oyster Point Boulevard, Suite 9A, South San Francisco, California, 94080 telephoning us at (650) 550-3500.

 

The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC and state the address of that site (http://www.sec.gov). In addition, we maintain a website at www.vaxart.com. Information contained in our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

Notwithstanding the statements in the preceding paragraphs, no document, report or exhibit (or portion of any of the foregoing) or any other information that we have “furnished” or may in the future “furnish” to the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act shall be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

In accordance with Rule 412 of the Securities Act, any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement.

 

SA-14

 

 

                                                     

 

 

 

Up to $100,000,000 of Shares

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SVB Leerink

 

 

B. Riley FBR

 

 

 

 

July 8, 2020

  

 

 

 

PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The following table sets forth the costs and expenses, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by the registrant in connection with the offering of the securities pursuant to this registration statement:

 

SEC registration fee

 

 

12,980  

Accounting fees and expenses

    *  

Legal fees and expenses

    *  

Printing and miscellaneous expenses

    *  

Total

  $ *  

 

 *

These fees and expenses depend on the securities offered and the number of issuances, and accordingly cannot be estimated as of the date of this prospectus.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Officers and Directors.

 

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation's board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement for expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act.

 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and amended and restated bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and officers, and may indemnify our employees and other agents, to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law. However, Delaware law prohibits our certificate of incorporation from limiting the liability of our directors for the following:

 

 

any breach of the director's duty of loyalty to us or to our stockholders;

 

 

acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

 

unlawful payment of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions; and

 

 

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

 

We have entered into agreements to indemnify each of our directors and officers. These agreements provide for the indemnification of such persons for all reasonable expenses and liabilities incurred in connection with any action or proceeding brought against them by reason of the fact that they are or were serving in such capacity.

 

We maintain insurance policies that indemnify our directors and officers against various liabilities arising under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act that might be incurred by any director or officer in his capacity as such. We have obtained director and officer liability insurance to cover liabilities our directors and officers may incur in connection with their services to us.

 

In any underwriting agreement we enter into in connection with the sale of our common stock being registered hereby, the underwriters will agree to indemnify, under certain circumstances, us, our officers, our directors, and our controlling persons within the meaning of the Securities Act, against certain liabilities.

 

Item 16. Exhibits

 

See the Exhibit Index on the page immediately following the signature page to this registration statement for a list of exhibits filed as part of this registration statement, which Exhibit Index is incorporated herein by reference.

 

I

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this Registration Statement:

 

 

(i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

 

(ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the Registration Statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the Registration Statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective Registration Statement.

 

 

(iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the Registration Statement or any material change to such information in the Registration Statement;

 

provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the Registration Statement.

 

(2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new Registration Statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

 

(A)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the Registration Statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the Registration Statement; and

 

 

(B)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a Registration Statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the Registration Statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the Registration Statement relating to the securities in the Registration Statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a Registration Statement or prospectus that is part of the Registration Statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or prospectus that is part of the Registration Statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the Registration Statement or prospectus that was part of the Registration Statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date;

 

II

 

(5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this Registration Statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

 

(i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

 

(ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

 

(iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

 

(iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(7)

That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933:

 

 

(i)

the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(l) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be a part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

 

 

(ii)

each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

III

 

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit

Number

Description of Document

1.1^

Form of Underwriting Agreement

1.2 Sales Agreement, dated July 8, 2020, by and between SVB Leerink LLC, B. Riley FBR, Inc., and Vaxart, Inc.

4.1

Specimen Common Stock Certificate of the Company (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Commission File No. 333-228910), filed on December 20, 2018)

4.2

Form of Indenture

4.3^

Form of Debt Security

4.4^

Form of Certificate of Designation

4.5^

Form of Preferred Stock Certificate

4.6^

Form of Warrant Agreement

4.7^

Form of Purchase Contract Agreement

4.8^

Form of Unit Certificate

5.1

Opinion of Thompson Hine LLP

23.1

Consent of Thompson Hine LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)

23.2 

Consent of OUM & Co. LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

23.3

Consent of KMPG LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

24.1

Power of Attorney (included on signature page)

25.1*

Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture

*       To be filed by amendment to this registration statement.

^       To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of a particular class or series of securities

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of San Francisco, State of California, on July 8, 2020.

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Andrei Floroiu

 

 

 

Andrei Floroiu

 

 

Chief Executive Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

KNOW ALL BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Andrei Floroiu, Wouter Latour, M.D., and Margaret A. Echerd, and each of them, as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, each with the full power of substitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place or stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement (including post-effective amendments), and to sign any registration statement for the same offering covered by this registration statement that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) promulgated under the Securities Act, and all post-effective amendments thereto, and to file the same, with exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Andrei Floroiu

 

Chief Executive Officer and

 

July 8, 2020

Andrei Floroiu

 

Member of the Board of Directors

 

 

 

 

(Principal Executive and Financial Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Margaret A. Echerd

 

Vice President, Corporate Controller

 

July 8, 2020

Margaret A. Echerd

 

(Principal Accounting Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Wouter Latour, M.D.

 

Chairman of the Board of Directors

 

July 8, 2020

Wouter Latour, M.D.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Steven Boyd

 

Member of the Board of Directors

 

July 8, 2020

Steven Boyd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Todd C. Davis

 

Member of the Board of Directors

 

July 8, 2020

Todd C. Davis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Michael J. Finney, Ph.D.

 

Member of the Board of Directors

 

July 8, 2020

Michael J. Finney, Ph.D.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Keith Maher

 

Member of the Board of Directors

 

July 8, 2020

Keith Maher

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Robert A. Yedid

 

Member of the Board of Directors

 

July 8, 2020

Robert A. Yedid

 

 

 

 

 

 
ex_193286.htm

Exhibit 1.2

 

EXECUTION

 

 

VAXART, INC.

Shares of Common Stock

($0.0001 par value per share)

 

 

SALES AGREEMENT

 

 

July 8, 2020

 

 

SVB Leerink LLC

One Federal Street, 37th Floor

Boston, MA 02110

 

B. Riley FBR, Inc.

299 Park Avenue, 21st Floor

New York, NY 10171

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Vaxart, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with SVB Leerink LLC (“SVB Leerink”) and B. Riley FBR, Inc. (each individually, an “Agent” and collectively, the “Agents”), as follows:

 

1.     Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agents up to $100,000,000 of shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”), subject to the limitations set forth in Section 5(c) (the “Placement Shares”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the aggregate gross sales price of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agents shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Placement Shares through the Agents will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) to be filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on July 8, 2020, although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to issue any Placement Shares.

 

The Company has prepared and filed, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission an “automatic shelf registration statement,” as defined under Rule 405 under the Securities Act, on Form S-3, including (a) a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”), and (b) a prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time pursuant to this Agreement (the “Sales Prospectus”) included as part of such registration statement. The Company will furnish to the Agents, for use by the Agents, copies of the Sales Prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented by any prospectus supplement, relating to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The Sales Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by one or more prospectus supplements, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Sales Prospectus have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus” (as used herein, as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act (“Rule 433”)), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case, in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

 

 

 

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, that are or are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the respective dates of the Prospectus or such issuer free writing prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System or, if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

 

2.     Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell any Placement Shares through the Agents hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify an Agent (the “Designated Agent”) by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (each such notice, a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires such Placement Shares to be sold, which at a minimum shall include the maximum number or amount of Placement Shares to be sold, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice must originate from one of the individuals authorized to act on behalf of the Company and set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such Schedule 2), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Agent set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be updated by either party from time to time by sending a written notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply). The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by the Agent unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent declines in writing to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, within two Trading Days of the date the Agent receives the Placement Notice, (ii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent suspends sales under the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (iii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares has been sold pursuant to this Agreement, (iv) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company amends, supersedes, or suspends sales under or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (v) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice and explicitly indicates that its parameters supersede those contained in the earlier dated Placement Notice or (vi) this Agreement has been terminated pursuant to the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Designated Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares effected through the Designated Agent shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Designated Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Designated Agent and the Designated Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control with respect to the matters covered thereby.

 

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3.     Sale of Placement Shares by the Designated Agent. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, including Section 5(c), upon the Designated Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice as provided in Section 2, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Designated Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the number or amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Designated Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number or amount of Placement Shares sold on such Trading Day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. Unless otherwise specified by the Company in a Placement Notice, the Designated Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through Nasdaq, on or through any other existing trading market for the Common Stock or to or through a market maker. If expressly authorized by the Company (including in a Placement Notice), the Designated Agent may also sell Placement Shares in negotiated transactions. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6(tt), except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Designated Agent, the Designated Agent shall not purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Designated Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Designated Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Designated Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Designated Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of Nasdaq to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Designated Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Designated Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Common Stock is purchased and sold on Nasdaq.

 

4.     Suspension of Sales.

 

(a)    The Company or the Designated Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other party unless notice is sent by one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto (as such Schedule may be amended from time to time) to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply).

 

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(b)    Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and the Agents agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares and shall cancel any effective Placement Notices instructing either Agent to make any sales and (iii) the Agents shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

 

5.     Settlement and Delivery of the Placement Shares.

 

(a)    Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice or as is required for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate gross sales price received by the Agent at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction of (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to the Agent hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) hereof and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

 

(b)    Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will issue the Placement Shares being sold on such date and will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer such Placement Shares by crediting the Designated Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Designated Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto, which in all cases shall be duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares of Common Stock in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Designated Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on or prior to the Settlement Date. The Designated Agent shall be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or other instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the transfer of the Placement Shares being sold. In addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) hereto, the Company agrees that if the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered Placement Shares in good deliverable form by 2:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Settlement Date (other than as a result of a failure by the Designated Agent to provide instructions for delivery), the Company will (i) take all necessary action to cause the full amount of any Net Proceeds that were delivered to the Company’s account with respect to such settlement, together with any costs incurred by the Designated Agent and/or its clearing firm in connection with recovering such Net Proceeds, to be immediately returned to the Designated Agent or its clearing firm no later than 5:00 P.M., New York City time, on such Settlement Date, by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account designated by the Designated Agent or its clearing firm, (ii) indemnify and hold the Designated Agent and its clearing firm harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (iii) pay to the Designated Agent (without duplication) any commission, discount or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Designated Agent may request in writing at least one Business Day (as defined below) before the applicable Settlement Date.

 

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(c)    Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate number or gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of: (i) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered pursuant to, and available for offer and sale under, the Registration Statement pursuant to which the offering of Placement Shares is being made, (ii) the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock of the Company (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (iii) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be offered and sold by the Company under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6. thereof, if such instruction is applicable), (iv) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock that the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof, or authorized executive officers of the Company is or are authorized to issue and sell from time to time, and notified to the Designated Agent in writing, or (v) the dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed the Prospectus. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof, or authorized executive officers of the Company and notified to the Designated Agent in writing. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto acknowledge and agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 5(c) on the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Designated Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.

 

6.     Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agents that as of the date of this Agreement (except for those representations, warranties and agreements that speak solely as of a specific date or time, in which case as of such date or time), and as of (i) each Representation Date (as defined in Section 7(m)) other than a Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, (ii) each date on which a Placement Notice is given, (iii) the date and time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iv) each Settlement Date (each such time or date referred to in clauses (i) through (iv), an “Applicable Time”):

 

(a)    The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the conditions for the use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B.1.) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement is an “automatic shelf registration statement” (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), and the Securities have been and remain eligible for registration by the Company on such automatic shelf registration statement. The Registration Statement has become effective under the Securities Act and meets, and the offering and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby comply with, the requirements of Rule 415(a)(1)(x) under the Securities Act. The Agents are named as the agents engaged by the Company in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus. The Company has not received from the Commission any notice pursuant to Rule 401(g)(1) under the Securities Act objecting to the use of the shelf registration statement form. No stop order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Prospectus or the effectiveness of the Registration Statement has been issued, and no proceedings for such purpose are pending before or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened by the Commission. The Company shall pay the required Commission filing fees relating to the Securities within the time required by Rule 456(b)(1)(i) under the 1933 Act Regulations without regard to the proviso therein and otherwise in accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the 1933 Act Regulations (including, if applicable, by updating the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in accordance with Rule 456(b)(1)(ii) either in a post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement or on the cover page of a prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)). Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any such amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing and all Incorporated Documents that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to the Agents and their counsel.

 

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(b)    Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective, at each deemed effective date with respect to the Agents pursuant to Rule 430B(f)(2) under the Securities Act and as of each Applicable Time, complied, complies and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and did not, does not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agents’ Information (as defined below). The Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto, when so filed with the Commission under Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, complied, complies and as of each Applicable Time will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act, and each Prospectus or issuer free writing prospectus (or any amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing) furnished to the Agents for use in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares was identical to the electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T. Neither the Prospectus nor any amendment or supplement thereto, as of its date and as of each Applicable Time, included, includes or will include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted, omits or will omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agents’ Information. Each Incorporated Document heretofore filed, when it was filed (or, if any amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), conformed in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act and were filed on a timely basis with the Commission, and any further Incorporated Documents so filed and incorporated after the date of this Agreement will when so filed, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act; no such Incorporated Document when it was filed (or, if an amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and no such Incorporated Document, when it is filed, will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or will omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(c)     (i) At the time of filing the Registration Statement and (ii) at the time of the execution of this Agreement (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (ii)), the Company was not and is not an “ineligible issuer” (as defined in Rule 405), without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an ineligible issuer.

 

(d)     (i) At the original effectiveness of the Registration Statement, (ii) at the time of the most recent amendment thereto for the purposes of complying with Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act (whether such amendment was by post-effective amendment or incorporated report filed pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or in the form of a prospectus), (iii) at the time the Company or any person acting on its behalf (within the meaning, for this clause only, of Rule 163(c) under the Securities Act) made any offer relating to the Placement Shares in reliance on the exemption of Rule 163 under the Securities Act, and (iv) as of the Applicable Time, the Company was and is a “well-known seasoned issuer” (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act).

 

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(e)     Each issuer free writing prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time, did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any Incorporated Document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified s’. Each issuer free writing prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433 or that was prepared by or on behalf of or used by the Company complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act.

 

(f)     The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the Designated Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares under this Agreement, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below).

 

(g)    The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

(h)    The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is listed on Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. The Company is in compliance with the current listing standards of Nasdaq except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration and the Prospectus. The Company has filed a Change in Outstanding Shares Notification or any other required notification form with Nasdaq with respect to the Placement Shares.

 

(i)     No person (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act) has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby or otherwise. Except for the Agents, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (as defined below) any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

 

(j)     The Company has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware, with full corporate power and authority to acquire, own, lease and operate its properties, and to lease the same to others, and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement. The Company is duly qualified to transact business as a foreign corporation and is in good standing in the State of California and under the laws of each other jurisdiction that requires such qualification, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or in good standing could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, results of operations, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

 

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(k)    Each of the Company’s “subsidiaries” (for purposes of this Agreement, as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) (each, a “Subsidiary” and collectively, the “Subsidiaries”) has been duly organized and is validly existing in good standing (where such concept exists) under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization and has full power and authority to acquire, own, lease and operate its properties, and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. Each Subsidiary is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing (where such concept exists) under the laws of each jurisdiction that requires such qualification, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or in good standing could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. All of the issued and outstanding share capital or other equity or ownership interests of each Subsidiary has been duly authorized and validly issued, is fully paid and nonassessable, has been issued in compliance with federal state and securities laws and is owned by the Company, directly or through other wholly-owned Subsidiaries, free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or adverse claim. The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity, other than the Subsidiaries listed on Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission. No Subsidiary is prohibited or restricted, directly or indirectly, from paying dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution with respect to such Subsidiary’s equity securities, from repaying to the Company or any other Subsidiary any amounts that may from time to time become due under any loans or advances to such Subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any property or assets to the Company or to any other Subsidiary.

 

(l)     The Company has the authorized and outstanding capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as of the dates referred to therein (subject, in each case, to the issuance of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of share options and warrants disclosed as outstanding as of the date hereof in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and the grant of options under existing share option plans described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus). The Common Stock conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, including under the heading “Description of Capital Stock.” All of the issued and outstanding share capital or other equity or ownership interest of the Company (including the Common Stock) has been duly authorized and validly issued and is fully paid and nonassessable, has been issued in compliance with all federal, state and local securities laws and is free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or adverse claim. None of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company were issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. There are no authorized or outstanding options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase or subscribe for, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any share capital of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which any of them may be bound. The descriptions of the Company’s equity incentive plan, stock option plans and other stock plans or arrangements described in the Prospectus and in effect as of the date hereof (collectively, the “Stock Plans”) and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus accurately and fairly present the information required to be shown with respect to such Stock Plans and the options or other rights granted thereunder.

 

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(m)   The Placement Shares have been duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and will conform in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby shall not be subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase the Placement Shares. When issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, the purchasers of the Placement Shares issued and sold hereunder will acquire good, marketable and valid title to such Placement Shares, free and clear of all pledges, liens, security interests, charges, claims or encumbrances. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby will not cause any holder of any share capital, securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for share capital or options, warrants or other rights to purchase share capital or any other securities of the Company to have any right to acquire any preferred shares of the Company. There are no restrictions upon the voting or transfer of the Common Stock under the Company’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws or any agreement or other instrument to which the Company is a party or otherwise filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement.

 

(n)    There is no statute, regulation, contract, agreement or other document required to be described in the Registration Statement, Prospectus or in any Incorporated Document, or to be filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement or any Incorporated Document which is not described or filed as required. The statements set forth or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, insofar as they purport to constitute summaries of the terms of the statutes, regulations, contracts, agreements or other documents described and filed, constitute accurate summaries of the terms thereof in all material respects. The statements set forth or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus under the headings “Risk Factors,” “Business—Intellectual Property,” “Business—Material License Agreements,” “Business—Government Regulation and Product Approval,” “Business—Legal Proceedings,” and “Description of Capital Stock,” insofar as such statements summarize legal matters, agreements, documents or proceedings discussed therein, are accurate and fair summaries of such legal matters, agreements, documents or proceedings. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has sent or received any communication regarding termination of, or intent not to renew or render performance under, any of the contracts or agreements referred to or described in the Prospectus or any free writing prospectus, or referred to or described in, or filed as an exhibit to, the Registration Statement, or any Incorporated Document, and no such termination or non-renewal has been threatened by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or, to the Company’s knowledge, any other party to any such contract or agreement, which threat of termination or non-renewal has not been rescinded as of the date hereof.

 

(o)    This Agreement has been duly and validly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and constitutes a valid and legally binding obligation of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except as enforceability, including rights of indemnification, may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent conveyance, reorganization, moratorium and other similar laws relating to or affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general principles of equity. This Agreement conforms in all material respects to the descriptions thereof in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

(p)    The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Prospectus, will not be an “investment company” as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

 

(q)    No consent, approval, license, permit, qualification, authorization or other order or decree of, or registration or filing with, any court or other governmental, taxing or regulatory authority or agency, is required for the Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement or consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby or by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (including the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder), except such as have been already obtained or made or as may be required under the Securities Act, applicable state securities or Blue Sky laws, applicable rules of Nasdaq, or Rule 5110 of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).

 

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(r)     Neither the execution and delivery by the Company of, nor the performance of the Company of its obligations under, this Agreement will conflict with, result in a breach or violation of, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries pursuant to: (i) the certificate or articles of incorporation, charter, bylaws, articles of association, limited liability company agreement, certificate or agreement of limited or general partnership or other similar organizational documents, as the case may be, of such entity, (ii) the terms of any indenture, contract, license, lease, mortgage, deed of trust, note agreement, agreement or other instrument, obligation, condition, covenant or instrument to which it is a party or bound or to which its property or assets is subject or (iii) any statute, law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree applicable to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any court, regulatory body, administrative agency, governmental body, arbitrator or other authority having jurisdiction over the Company, any of its Subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets, as applicable, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(s)     Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: (i) there has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, results of operations, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business; (ii) neither the Company nor its Subsidiaries has (A) incurred any material liability or obligation, indirect, direct or contingent, including without limitation any losses or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood, earthquakes, accident or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any strike, labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree, that are material, individually or in the aggregate, to the Company and its Subsidiaries, considered as one entity, (B) entered into any material transactions not in the ordinary course of business or (C) issued or granted any shares of the Company’s capital stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for or that represent the right to receive shares of the Company’s capital stock other than under the Stock Plans; and (iii) there has not been any material decrease in the share capital or any material increase in any short-term or long-term indebtedness of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries and there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company or, except for dividends paid to the Company or another Subsidiary, by any Subsidiary on any class of shares, or any repurchase or redemption by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any class of shares.

 

(t)     There are no persons (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act) with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities of the Company registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived in a writing previously furnished to the Agents.

 

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(u)     The financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related notes and schedules, present fairly the consolidated financial position of the Company and the Subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the consolidated results of operations, cash flows and changes in stockholders’ equity of the Company and the Subsidiaries for the periods specified and have been prepared in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Act and Exchange Act and in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved. To the extent applicable, any pro forma financial statements, information or data included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply with the requirements of Regulation S-X of the Securities Act, including, without limitation, Article 11 thereof, fairly present the information set forth herein, and the assumptions used in the preparation of such pro forma financial statements and data are reasonable, the pro forma adjustments used therein are appropriate to give effect to the circumstances referred to therein and the pro forma adjustments have been properly applied to the historical amounts in the compilation of those statements and data. The other financial data set forth or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is accurately and fairly presented and prepared on a basis consistent with the financial statements and books and records of the Company. There are no financial statements (historical or pro forma) that are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are no included or incorporated by reference therein as required. The Company and the Subsidiaries do not have any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), not disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. All disclosures contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that contain “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply, in all material respects, with Regulation G under the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, to the extent applicable. The statistical, industry-related and market-related data included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus were obtained or derived from sources which the Company reasonably and in good faith believes are reliable and accurate, such data agree with the sources from which they are derived, and the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources to the extent required. To the Company’s knowledge, no person who has been suspended or barred from being associated with a registered public accounting firm, or who has failed to comply with any sanction pursuant to Rule 5300 promulgated by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), has participated in or otherwise aided the preparation of, or audited, the financial statements, supporting schedules or other financial data filed with the Commission as a part of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

(v)     There are no actions, suits, claims, investigations or proceedings pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened to which the Company or any of the Subsidiaries is or would be a party, or of which any of the respective properties or assets of the Company and the Subsidiaries is or would be subject, at law or in equity, before any court or arbitral body or by or before any federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory commission, board, body, authority or agency, that (i) are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and are not so described, (ii) could reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or on the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated hereby or (iii) could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The aggregate of all pending legal or governmental proceedings to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or of which any of their respective properties or assets is the subject which are not described in the Prospectus, including ordinary routine litigation incidental to the Company’s business, could not reasonably be expected to (A) result in a Material Adverse Effect or (B) have a material adverse effect on the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated hereby.

 

(w)     The Company owns or leases all such real properties as are necessary to the conduct of its operations as presently conducted in all material respects.

 

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(x)     Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation or default of (i) any provision of its certificate or articles of incorporation, charter, bylaws, articles of association, limited liability company agreement, certificate or agreement of limited or general partnership, or other similar organizational documents, as the case may be, of such entity, (ii) the terms of any indenture, contract, lease, mortgage, deed of trust, note agreement, loan agreement or other agreement, obligation, condition, covenant or instrument to which it is a party or bound or to which its property or assets is subject, or (iii) any statute, law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any court, regulatory body, administrative agency, governmental body, arbitrator or other authority having jurisdiction over the Company, any of its Subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets, as applicable, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(y)     Each of KPMG LLP and OUM & Co. LLP, whose reports on the consolidated financial statements of the Company, for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, respectively, are filed with the Commission as part of the Company’s most recent annual report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is (i) an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and the rules of the PCAOB, (ii) in compliance with the applicable requirements relating to the qualification of accountants under Rule 2-01 of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act and (iii) a registered public accounting firm as defined by the PCAOB whose registration has not been suspended or revoked and who has not requested such registration to be withdrawn. Neither KPMG LLP nor OUM & Co. LLP has been engaged by the Company to perform any “prohibited activities” or provided to the Company any “non-audit services” (as defined in Section 10A of the Exchange Act).

 

(z)     There are no transfer taxes or other similar fees or charges under federal law, the laws of any state, any foreign law, or any political subdivision thereof, required to be paid in connection with the execution and delivery of this Agreement or the issuance by the Company or sale by the Company of the Placement Shares.

 

(aa)   All United States federal income tax returns of the Company and its Subsidiaries required by law to be filed have been filed or extensions thereof have been requested, and all taxes shown by such returns or otherwise assessed, which are due and payable, have been paid, except assessments that are being contested in good faith and as to which adequate reserves have been provided under GAAP. Each of the Company and its Subsidiaries has filed all foreign, state, provincial, local or other tax returns that are required to have been filed pursuant to applicable foreign, state, provincial, local or other law except insofar as the failure to file such returns would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, and paid all taxes due pursuant to such returns or pursuant to any assessment received by the Company and its Subsidiaries, except for such taxes, if any, as are being contested in good faith and as to which adequate reserves have been provided and except for such taxes or assessments the nonpayment of which would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. The charges, accruals and reserves on the books of the Company and its Subsidiaries in respect of any income or other tax liability for any years not finally determined are adequate to meet any assessments or re-assessments for additional tax for any years not finally determined, except to the extent of any inadequacy that would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. All material taxes which the Company and its Subsidiaries are required by law to withhold or to collect for payment have been duly withheld and collected and have been paid to the appropriate governmental authority or agency or have been accrued, reserved against and entered on the books of the Company and its Subsidiaries.

 

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(bb)     No labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries exists or, to the Company’s knowledge, is threatened or imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or any of its Subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, manufacturers, contractors or customers, in each case that would have a Material Adverse Effect. None of the employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is represented by a union and, to the knowledge of the Company, no union organizing activities are taking place. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has violated (or received written notice of any violation of) any federal, state or local law or foreign law relating to the discrimination in hiring, promotion or pay of employees, nor any applicable wage or hour laws, or the rules and regulations thereunder, or analogous foreign laws and regulations, which would, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(cc)     Each of the Company and its Subsidiaries are insured by recognized and reputable institutions with policies in such amounts and with such deductibles and covering such risks as are generally deemed adequate and customary for their businesses including, but not limited to, policies covering real and personal property owned or leased by the Company and its Subsidiaries against theft, damage, destruction, acts of vandalism and earthquakes and policies covering the Company and its Subsidiaries for clinical trial liability claims. The Company has no reason to believe that it or any of its Subsidiaries will not be able (i) to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such policies expire or (ii) to obtain comparable coverage from similar institutions as may be necessary or appropriate to conduct its business as now conducted and at a cost that could not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has been denied any material insurance coverage which it has sought or for which it has applied.

 

(dd)     The Company and its Subsidiaries do not own any real property. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries have good and valid title to all personal property described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as being owned by them that are material to the businesses of the Company or such Subsidiary, in each case free and clear of all mortgages, liens, encumbrances and claims, except those matters that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and any of its Subsidiaries or (ii) would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Any real or personal property described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as being leased by the Company and any of its Subsidiaries is held by them under valid, existing and enforceable leases, except those that (A) do not materially interfere with the use made or proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (B) would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. Each of the leased properties of the Company and its Subsidiaries complies with all applicable codes, laws and regulations (including, without limitation, building and zoning codes, laws and regulations and laws relating to access to such properties), except if and to the extent disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or except for such failures to comply that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to interfere in any material respect with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its Subsidiaries or otherwise have a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company or its subsidiaries has received from any governmental authorities any notice of any condemnation of, or zoning change affecting, the properties of the Company and its Subsidiaries, and the Company knows of no such condemnation or zoning change which is threatened, except for such that would not reasonably be expected to interfere in any material respect with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its Subsidiaries or otherwise have a Material Adverse Effect, individually or in the aggregate.

 

(ee)     The Company and its Subsidiaries possess and are operating in compliance with such valid and current material certificates, authorizations or permits required by United States federal, state or foreign regulatory agencies or bodies to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted and as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, “Permits”). Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is in violation of, or in default under, any of the Permits or has received any written notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of, or non-compliance with, any such certificate, authorization or permit, which, individually or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(ff)     The Company makes and keeps accurate books and records and maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (v) the interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

(gg)    The Company has established and maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15 under the Exchange Act), which (i) are designed to ensure that information relating to the Company, including its consolidated Subsidiaries, is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and its principal financial officer by others within those entities, particularly during the periods in which the periodic reports required under the Exchange Act are being prepared; (ii) have been evaluated by management of the Company for effectiveness as of the end of the Company’s most recent fiscal quarter; and (iii) are effective in all material respects to perform the functions for which they were established. Since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. The Company is not aware of any change in its internal control over financial reporting that has occurred during its most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

(hh)    Neither the Company, nor any of its Subsidiaries, nor to the knowledge of the Company, any of its or their respective directors, officers or controlling persons has taken, directly or indirectly, without giving effect to any actions taken by the Agents, (i) any action designed to or that might constitute or reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) any action designed to or that might constitute or reasonably be expected to cause or result in a violation of Regulation M under the Exchange Act.

 

(ii)     Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries (i) are in compliance with any and all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules, regulations, decisions and orders relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) have received and are in compliance with all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; and (iii) have not received notice of any actual or potential liability for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, except, in the case of any of clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) above, for any such failure to comply or failure to receive required permits, licenses, other approvals or liability as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(jj)     The Company and any “employee benefit plan” (as defined under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (collectively, “ERISA”)) established or maintained by the Company, or its “ERISA Affiliates” (as defined below) are in compliance in all material respects with ERISA. “ERISA Affiliates” means, with respect to the Company, any member of any group of organizations described in Sections 414(b), (c), (m) or (o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (the “Code”) of which the Company is a member. No “reportable event” (as defined under ERISA) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur with respect to any “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, or any of its ERISA Affiliates. No “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company or any of its ERISA Affiliates, if such “employee benefit plan” were terminated, would have any “amount of unfunded benefit liabilities” (as defined under ERISA). Neither the Company nor any of its ERISA Affiliates has incurred or reasonably expects to incur any liability under (i) Title IV of ERISA with respect to termination of, or withdrawal from, any “employee benefit plan” or (ii) Sections 412, 4971, 4975 or 4980B of the Code. Each “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company or any of its ERISA Affiliates that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified and nothing has occurred, whether by action or failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification.

 

(kk)    The Company is in compliance with, and there is and has been no failure on the part of the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with, any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder or implementing the provisions thereof (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith, including Section 402 relating to loans.

 

(ll)     Neither the Company, any of its Subsidiaries, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any of their respective directors, officers, agents, employees or affiliates, has taken or will take any action in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization or approval of the unlawful payment or giving of money, property, gifts or anything else of value, directly or indirectly, to any “government official” (including any officer or employee of a government or government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office) to influence official action or secure an improper advantage; and the Company, each of its Subsidiaries and, to the Company’s knowledge, each of their respective affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with applicable anti-corruption laws.

 

(mm)  None of the Company, any Subsidiary, affiliate, director, officer or employee thereof or, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, any agent, representative or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or affiliates, is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that would result in a violation by such persons of any applicable anti-corruption laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “FCPA”), including, without limitation, making use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce corruptly in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay or authorization of the payment of any money, or other property, gift, promise to give, or authorization of the giving of anything of value to any “foreign official” (as such term is defined in the FCPA) or any foreign political party or official thereof or any candidate for foreign political office or otherwise took any action (or failed to fully disclose any action) in contravention of the FCPA; and the Company, its Subsidiaries and each of their respective affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintain, and will continue to maintain, policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

 

15

 

(nn)     The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements and the money laundering statutes and the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit, investigation or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, threatened.

 

(oo)     Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries, nor any director or officer thereof, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any employee, agent, affiliate or representative of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, is currently or is owned or controlled by an individual or entity that is subject to any sanctions administered or enforced by the United States government (including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the United States Department of the Treasury), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”) or is located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject or target of Sanctions; and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the sale of the Placement Shares, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any Subsidiary, or any joint venture partner or other person or entity, for the purpose of financing or facilitating the activities of or business of any person or entity, or in any country or territory, that currently or at the time of such financing or facilitation is the subject of any Sanctions or in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person or entity (including any person participating in the transactions contemplated by this Agreement) of any Sanctions. For the past five years, the Company and its Subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in and are not now knowingly engaged in any dealings or transactions with any person or entity, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.

 

(pp)     Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries own, possess, license or have other rights to use, or could obtain on commercially reasonable terms, all foreign and domestic patents, patent applications, trade and service marks, trade and service mark registrations, trade names, copyrights, licenses, inventions, trade secrets, technology, Internet domain names, know-how and other intellectual property (collectively, the “Intellectual Property”), necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses as now conducted except to the extent that the failure to own, possess, license or otherwise hold adequate rights to use such Intellectual Property would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (i) there are no rights of third parties to any such Intellectual Property owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries, except for licenses granted in the ordinary course to third parties, or that could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (ii) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no infringement by third parties of any such Intellectual Property; (iii) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the Company’s and its Subsidiaries’ rights in or to any such Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (iv) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the validity or scope of any such Intellectual Property; (v) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others that the Company and its Subsidiaries infringe or otherwise violate any patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others; (vi) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no third-party U.S. patent or published U.S. patent application which contains claims for which an Interference Proceeding (as defined in 35 U.S.C. § 135), or the equivalent in any other jurisdiction, has been commenced against any patent or patent application described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as being owned by or licensed to the Company; and (vii) the Company and its Subsidiaries have complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or such Subsidiary, and all such agreements are in full force and effect, except, in the case of any of clauses (i)-(vii) above, for any such infringement by third parties or any such pending or threatened suit, action, proceeding or claim as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(qq)     As to each product subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) or any non-U.S. counterpart that is manufactured, packaged, labeled, tested, distributed, sold, and/or marketed by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (each such product, a “Product”), such Product is being manufactured, packaged, labeled, tested, distributed, sold and/or marketed by the Company or its Subsidiaries in compliance with all applicable Health Care Laws relating to registration, investigational use, premarket clearance, licensure, or application approval, good manufacturing practices, good laboratory practices, good clinical practices, product listing, quotas, labeling, advertising, record keeping and filing of reports, except where the failure to be in compliance would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. There is no pending, completed or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened, action (including any lawsuit, arbitration, or legal or administrative or regulatory proceeding, charge, complaint, or investigation) against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, and none of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries has received any notice, warning letter or other communication from the FDA or any other governmental entity, which (i) contests the premarket clearance, licensure, registration, or approval of, the uses of, the distribution of, the manufacturing or packaging of, the testing of, the sale of, or the labeling and promotion of any Product, (ii) withdraws its approval of, requests the recall, suspension, or seizure of, or withdraws or orders the withdrawal of advertising or sales promotional materials relating to, any Product, (iii) imposes a clinical hold on any clinical investigation by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, (iv) enjoins production at any facility of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, (v) enters or proposes to enter into a consent decree of permanent injunction with the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or (vi) otherwise alleges any violation of any laws, rules or regulations by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, and which, either individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The properties, business and operations of the Company have been and are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with all applicable Health Care Laws. The Company has not been informed by the FDA or any non-U.S. counterpart that the FDA or any non-U.S. counterpart will prohibit the marketing, sale, license or use in the United States or in any other territory any product proposed to be developed, produced or marketed by the Company or any Subsidiary nor has the FDA or any non-U.S. counterpart expressed any concern as to approving or clearing for marketing any product being developed or proposed to be developed by the Company or any Subsidiary. To the Company’s knowledge, there are no legal or governmental proceedings relating to any Health Care Law pending or threatened to which the Company is a party, nor is it aware of any material violations of such acts or regulations by the Company, which would have a Material Adverse Effect. For purposes of this Agreement, “Health Care Laws” means: (i) the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder; (ii) all applicable federal, state, local and all applicable foreign health care related fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the U.S. Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(b)), the U.S. Physician Payment Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h), the U.S. Civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. Section 3729 et seq.), the criminal False Claims Law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(a)), all criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287, and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) (42 U.S.C. Section 1320d et seq.), the exclusion laws (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7), the civil monetary penalties law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a), the statutes, regulations and directives of applicable government funded or sponsored healthcare programs, and the regulations promulgated pursuant to such statutes; (iii) the Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information (the “Privacy Rule”), the Security Standards, and the Standards for Electronic Transactions and Code Sets promulgated under HIPAA, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. Section 17921 et seq.), and the regulations promulgated thereunder and any state or non-U.S. counterpart thereof or other law or regulation the purpose of which is to protect the privacy of individuals or prescribers; (iv) Medicare (Title XVIII of the Social Security Act); (v) Medicaid (Title XIX of the Social Security Act); and (vi) any and all other applicable health care laws and regulations.

 

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(rr)     Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has failed to file with the applicable governmental authority (including the FDA or any foreign, federal, state or local governmental authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) any required filing, declaration, listing, registration, report or submission, except for such failures that, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, all such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions were in material compliance with applicable laws when filed and no deficiencies have been asserted by any applicable regulatory authority with respect to any such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions, except for any deficiencies that, individually or in the aggregate, would not have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has operated and currently is, in all material respects, in compliance with the United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, all applicable rules and regulations of the FDA, and other federal, state, local and foreign governmental authority exercising comparable authority.

 

(ss)     There is no legal or governmental proceeding to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or of which any property or assets of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is the subject, including any proceeding before the FDA or any foreign, local, national or other governmental agency with jurisdiction over the types of products being developed by the Company that is required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and is not described therein, or which, singularly or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and no such proceedings are threatened or contemplated by governmental or regulatory authorities or threatened by others. The Company and its Subsidiaries (i) have not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any governmental authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Governmental Permits and have no knowledge that any such governmental authority or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding and (ii) have not received notice that any governmental authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any Governmental Permits and the Company has no knowledge that any such governmental authority is considering such action.

 

(tt)     The research, non-clinical and pre-clinical studies and clinical trials and tests conducted or being conducted by or on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or in which any of their respective product candidates have participated and, to the Company’s knowledge, the pre-clinical studies and clinical trials directed or sponsored by the Company’s collaborators (collectively, the “Studies”) that are described in, or the results of which are referred to in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus were and, if still pending, are being conducted with reasonable care and in all material respects in accordance with the protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to all Applicable Laws and Governmental Permits and with standard medical and scientific research procedures; each description of the results of such Studies is accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly presents the data derived from such Studies, and the Company and its Subsidiaries have no knowledge of any other research, non-clinical studies or tests the results of which are inconsistent with, or otherwise call into question, the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; the Company and its Subsidiaries have made all such filings and obtained all such approvals as may be required by the FDA or any committee thereof or from any other United States or foreign government agency with jurisdiction over the types of products being developed by the Company; neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any notice of, or correspondence from, any governmental authority requiring the termination, suspension or modification of any Study; and the Company and its Subsidiaries have each operated and currently are in compliance in all material respects with all applicable rules, regulations and policies of all governmental authorities. There have been no material serious adverse events resulting from any Study. To the Company’s knowledge, the manufacturing facilities and operations of its suppliers are operated in compliance in all material respects with all Applicable Laws and Governmental Permits.

 

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(uu)     The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Agents have informed the Company that the Agents may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell shares of Common Stock for their own account while this Agreement is in effect; provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent the Designated Agent may engage in sales of Placement Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agents, except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Agents.

 

(vv)     The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.

 

(ww)   The Company is not required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act and does not, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control or have any other association with (within the meaning of Article I of the By-laws of FINRA) any member firm of FINRA. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company, on the one hand, and the directors, officers or shareholders of the Company, on the other hand, which is required by the rules of FINRA to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, which is not so described. All of the information (including, but not limited to, information regarding affiliations, security ownership and trading activity) provided to the Agents or their counsel by the Company, its officers and directors and the holders of any securities (debt or equity) or warrants, options or rights to acquire any securities of the Company in connection with the filing to be made and other supplemental information to be provided to FINRA pursuant to FINRA Rule 5110 in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement is true, complete and correct.

 

(xx)     As of the close of trading on Nasdaq on June 30, 2020, the aggregate market value of the outstanding voting and non-voting common equity (as defined in Rule 405) of the Company held by persons other than affiliates of the Company (pursuant to Rule 144 of the Securities Act, those that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control, or are controlled by, or are under common control with, the Company) (the “Non-Affiliate Shares”), was approximately $842,046,746 (calculated by multiplying (x) the price at which the common equity of the Company was last sold on Nasdaq on June 30, 2020 by (y) the number of Non-Affiliate Shares outstanding on June 30, 2020). The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously.

 

(yy)     Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

 

(zz)     Each of the independent directors (or independent director nominees, once appointed, if applicable) named in the Registration Statement and Prospectus satisfies the independence standards established by Nasdaq and, with respect to members of the Company’s audit committee, the enhanced independence standards contained in Rule 10A-3(b)(1) promulgated by the Commission under the Exchange Act.

 

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(aaa)    Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its affiliates (within the meaning of Rule 144 under the Securities Act) has, prior to the date hereof, made any offer or sale of any securities which could be “integrated” (within the meaning of the Securities Act) with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder.

 

(bbb)   Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has (i) failed to pay any dividend or sinking fund installment on preferred stock or (ii) defaulted on any installment or payment due on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(ccc)    Each financial or operational projection or other “forward-looking statement” (as defined by Section 27A of the Securities Act or Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (i) was so included by the Company in good faith and with reasonable basis after due consideration by the Company of the underlying assumptions, estimates and other applicable facts and circumstances and (ii) as required, is accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements identifying those factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in such forward-looking statement. No such statement was made with the knowledge of a director or senior manager of the Company that was false or misleading.

 

(ddd)   There are no relationships, direct or indirect, or related party transactions involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or any other person (including any director, officer, stockholder, customer or supplier of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries) required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that have not been described as required. There are no material outstanding loans, advances (except normal advances for business expenses in the ordinary course of business) or guarantees of indebtedness by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to or for the benefit of any of the officers or directors of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or any of the family members of any of such persons.

 

(eee)    The Company is not in or subject to a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding in any jurisdiction.

 

(fff)     The Company and its Subsidiaries (i) are in compliance, in all material respects, with any and all applicable foreign, federal, state and local laws, rules, regulations, treaties, statutes and codes promulgated by any and all governmental authorities (including pursuant to the Occupational Health and Safety Act) relating to the protection of human health and safety the workplace (“Occupational Laws”); (ii) have received all material permits, licenses or other approvals required of it under applicable Occupational Laws to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted; and (iii) are in compliance, in all material respects, with all terms and conditions of such permit, license or approval. No action, proceeding, revocation proceeding, writ, injunction or claim is pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries relating to Occupational Laws, and the Company does not have knowledge of any facts, circumstances or developments relating to its operations or cost accounting practices that could reasonably be expected to form the basis for or give rise to such actions, suits, investigations or proceedings.

 

(ggg)   No director or officer of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is subject to any non-competition agreement or non-solicitation agreement with any employer or prior employer which could materially affect each director’s or officer’s ability to be and act in the capacity of a director or officer of the Company or a Subsidiary.

 

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(hhh)  The Company has duly and properly filed or caused to be filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the “PTO”) and applicable foreign and international patent and trademark authorities all patents, trademarks, copyrights and applications relating to the same owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries (the “Company Patent and Trademark Applications”). To the knowledge of the Company, the Company has complied with the PTO’s duty of candor and disclosure for the Company Patent and Trademark Applications and has made no material misrepresentation in the Company Patent and Trademark Applications. To the Company’s knowledge, the Company Patent and Trademark Applications disclose patentable subject matter. The Company has not been notified of any inventorship challenges nor has any interference been declared or provoked nor is any material fact known by the Company that would preclude the issuance of patents with respect to the Company Patent and Trademark Applications or would render such patents, if issued, invalid or unenforceable. Except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has breached and is currently in breach of any provision of any license, contract or other agreement governing the use by the Company or its Subsidiaries of Intellectual Property owned by third parties (collectively, the “Licenses”) and no third party has alleged any such breach and the Company is unaware of any facts that would form a reasonable basis for such a claim. To the Company’s knowledge, no other party to the Licenses has breached or is currently in breach of any provision of the Licenses. Each of the Licenses is in full force and effect and constitutes a valid and binding agreement between the parties thereto, enforceable in accordance with its terms, and there has not occurred any breach or default under any such Licenses or any event that, with the giving of notice or lapse of time, would constitute a breach or default thereunder. Except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has been and is currently involved in any disputes regarding the Licenses. To the Company’s knowledge, all patents licensed to the Company pursuant to the Licenses are valid, enforceable and being duly maintained. To the Company’s knowledge, all patent applications licensed to the Company pursuant to the Licenses are being duly prosecuted.

 

Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company and delivered to the Agents or their counsel in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company, as to matters covered thereby, to the Agents.

 

7.       Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with the Agents that:

 

(a)      Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which the Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agents under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule); (i) the Company will notify the Agents promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agents’ request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agents’ reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agents (provided, however, that the failure of the Agents to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agents’ right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agents shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing (but without limiting the Agents’ rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agents within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agents have not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of the Agents to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agents’ right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agents shall have with respect to the Company’s making such filing notwithstanding the Agents’ objection (but without limiting the Agents’ rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agents at the time of filing thereof a copy of any Incorporated Document, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act and, in the case of any Incorporated Document, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed.

 

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(b)     Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agents, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agents promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

 

(c)     Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agents under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and will file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agents to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its best efforts to comply with the provisions thereof and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agents promptly of all such filings if not available on EDGAR.

 

(d)     Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agents under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq. The Company will timely file with Nasdaq all material documents and notices required by Nasdaq of companies that have or will issue securities that are traded on Nasdaq.

 

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(e)     Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agents and their counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all Incorporated Documents) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all Incorporated Documents filed with the Commission during such period), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agents may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agents’ request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agents to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(f)     Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agents as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) of and Rule 158 under the Securities Act, which requirement shall be satisfied by the timely filing of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

(g)     Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of the Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto and of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (ii) the preparation, issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares and any taxes due or payable in connection therewith, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(w) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for the Agents in connection therewith shall be paid by the Agents except as set forth in clauses (vii) and (viii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to the Agents and their counsel of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, owed to the Commission or FINRA and the fees and expenses of any transfer agent or registrar for the Shares, (vii) the fees and associated expenses of the Agents’ outside legal counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department (excluding FINRA filing fees referred to in clause (vi) above), and (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of the Agents’ outside legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $150,000 (including the fees and associated expenses referred to in clause (vii) above).

 

(h)     Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

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(i)     Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of SVB Leerink, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire shares of Common Stock during the period beginning on the fifth Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agents hereunder and ending on the second Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market offering” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, shares of Common Stock prior to the later of the termination of this Agreement and the sixtieth day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) shares of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock, other securities under the Company’s existing equity incentive plans, or shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or vesting of other securities, pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not shares of Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agents and (iii) shares of Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes.

 

(j)     Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise the Agents promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided or required to be provided to the Agents pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(k)     Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agents, their affiliates agents and counsel from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agents may reasonably request.

 

(l)     Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on or prior to such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agents, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agents with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market; provided, that, unless a prospectus supplement containing such information is required to be filed under the Securities Act, the requirement of this Section 7(l) may be satisfied by Company’s inclusion in the Company’s Form 10-K or Form 10-Q, as applicable, of the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agents, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agents with respect to such Placement Shares during the relevant period.

 

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(m)     Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the date on which the Company first delivers a Placement Notice pursuant to this agreement (the “First Placement Notice Date”) and each time the Company:

 

(i)       amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

 

(ii)      files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

 

(iii)     files a quarterly report on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

 

(iv)     files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release that is “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”),

 

the Company shall furnish the Agents (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if (1) a Placement Notice is pending or in effect and (2) the Agents request such certificate within three Business Days after the filing of such Form 8-K with the Commission) with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) (modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented), within two Trading Days of any Representation Date. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending or in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of (1) the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and (2) the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date on which the Company relied on the waiver referred to in the previous sentence and did not provide the Agents with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers a Placement Notice or the Agents sell any Placement Shares pursuant thereto, the Company shall provide the Agents with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of such Placement Notice. Within two Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agents such further information, certificates and documents as the Agents may reasonably request.

 

(n)     Legal Opinions. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agents the written opinion and negative assurance letter of Thompson Hine LLP, counsel to the Company, or such other counsel satisfactory to the Agents (“Company Counsel”), in form and substance satisfactory to the Agents and their counsel, dated the date that the opinion and negative assurance letter are required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinion and negative assurance letter for subsequent Representation Dates, Company Counsel may furnish the Agents with a letter to the effect that the Agents may rely on a prior opinion or negative assurance letter delivered by such counsel under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion or negative assurance letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

 

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(o)     Intellectual Property Opinion. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agents the written opinion of Kilpatrick Townsend & Stockton LLP, counsel for the Company with respect to intellectual property matters, or such other intellectual property counsel satisfactory to the Agents (“Intellectual Property Counsel”), in form and substance satisfactory to the Agents and their counsel, dated the date that the opinion letter is required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such written opinion for subsequent Representation Dates, Intellectual Property Counsel may furnish the Agents with a letter to the effect that the Agents may rely on a prior opinion letter delivered by such counsel under this Section 7(o) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such opinion letter (except that statements in such prior opinion letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

 

(p)     Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm (and any other independent accountants whose report is included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) to furnish the Agents letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(p); provided, that if requested by the Agents, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agents within 10 Trading Days of the occurrence of any material transaction or event that necessitates the filing of additional, pro forma, amended or revised financial statements (including any restatement of previously issued financial statements). Each Comfort Letter shall be in form and substance satisfactory to the Agents and each Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall (i) confirm that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) state, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) update the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

(q)     Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, and will cause its officers, directors and Subsidiaries not to (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of shares of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase shares of Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agents; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of Common Stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

 

(r)     Insurance. The Company and its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

 

(s)     Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental certificates, authorizations or permits required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus (collectively, “Permits”), and the Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such Permits and with applicable Environmental Laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such Permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(t)     Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

 

(u)     Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

 

(v)     No Offer to Sell. Other than a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and the Agents, neither the Agents nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agents in their capacity as agents) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

 

(w)     Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agents, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agents may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

 

(x)     Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and its Subsidiaries will use their best efforts to comply with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

(y)     CFO Certificate. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its Chief Financial Officer (or its principal accounting officer if there is no Chief Financial Officer) to furnish the Agents with a certificate with respect to certain financial information contained in or incorporated by reference into the Registration or the Prospectus in such form as the Agents may reasonably request.

 

(z)     Renewal of Registration Statement. If, immediately prior to the third anniversary of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement (the “Renewal Date”), any of the Placement Shares remain unsold and this Agreement has not been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Date, file a new shelf registration statement or, if applicable, an automatic shelf registration statement relating to the Common Stock that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement (which shall include a prospectus reflecting the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement), in a form satisfactory to the Agents and their counsel, and, if such registration statement is not an automatic shelf registration statement, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 180 days after the Renewal Date. The Company will take all other reasonable actions necessary or appropriate to permit the public offer and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement and this Agreement. From and after the effective date thereof, references herein to the “Registration Statement” shall include such new shelf registration statement or such new automatic shelf registration statement, as the case may be.

 

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(aa)    General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3. If, from and after the date of this Agreement, the Company is no longer eligible to use Form S-3 (including pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6.) at the time it files with the Commission an annual report on Form 10-K or any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, then it shall promptly notify the Agents and, within two Business Days after the date of filing of such annual report on Form 10-K or amendment to the Registration Statement, the Company shall file a new prospectus supplement with the Commission reflecting the number of shares of Common Stock available to be offered and sold by the Company under this Agreement pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any such prospectus supplement for up to 30 days if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company to do so, provided that no Placement Notice is in effect or pending during such time. Until such time as the Company shall have corrected such misstatement or omission or effected such compliance, the Company shall not notify the Agents to resume the offering of Placement Shares.

 

(bb)   Tax Indemnity. The Company will indemnify and hold harmless the Agents against any documentary, stamp or similar issue tax, including any interest and penalties, on the issue and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(cc)     Transfer Agent. The Company has engaged and will maintain, at its sole expense, a transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock.

 

8.       Conditions to the Agents Obligations. The obligations of the Agents hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agents of a due diligence review satisfactory to the Agents in their reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agents in their sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

(a)     Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for all offers and sales of Placement Shares (i) that have been issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) that will be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice.

 

(b)     [Reserved.]

 

(c)     No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or Incorporated Documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, in the case of the Prospectus, so that it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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(d)     No Misstatement or Material Omission. The Agents shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agents’ opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agents’ opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(e)     Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, the effect of which, in the judgment of the Agents (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(f)     Company Counsel Legal Opinions. The Agents shall have received the opinions and negative assurance letters, as applicable, of Company Counsel and Intellectual Property Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) and Section 7(o), as applicable, on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions and negative assurance letters are required pursuant to Section 7(n) and Section 7(o), as applicable.

 

(g)     Agents Counsel Legal Opinion. The Agents shall have received from Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., counsel for the Agents, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as the Agents may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they may request to enable them to pass upon such matters.

 

(h)     Comfort Letter. The Agents shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(p) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(p).

 

(i)     Representation Certificate. The Agents shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(j)     Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date, the Agent shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date and in form and substance satisfactory to the Agents and their counsel, certifying as to (i) the amended and restated certificate of incorporation of the Company, (ii) the amended and restated bylaws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the board of directors of the Company or duly authorized committee thereof authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers of the Company duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement (including each of the officers set forth on Schedule 2).

 

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(k)     No Suspension. The Common Stock shall be duly listed, and admitted and authorized for trading, subject to official notice of issuance, on Nasdaq. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on, and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from, Nasdaq.

 

(l)     Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to the Agents such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agents may have reasonably requested. All such information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company shall have furnished the Agents with conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agents may have reasonably requested.

 

(m)    Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424(b) (without reliance on Rule 424(b)(8) of the Securities Act) or Rule 433, as applicable.

 

(n)     Approval for Listing. Either (i) the Placement Shares shall have been approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the First Placement Notice Date and Nasdaq shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.

 

(o)     FINRA. FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of the offering contemplated hereby and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agents as described in the Prospectus.

 

(p)     No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agents to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

 

9.      Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)     Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agents, their affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Agents within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Agents, in each case from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any and all reasonable and documented investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with this Section 9), any action, suit, investigation or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party (including any governmental or self-regulatory authority, or otherwise, or any claim asserted or threatened), as and when incurred, to which the Agents, or any such other person may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein (solely with respect to the Prospectus, in light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties or agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused, directly or indirectly, by an untrue statement or omission, or alleged untrue statement or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agents’ Information. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

 

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(b)     Agent Indemnification. The Agents agree to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agents’ Information.

 

(c)     Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable and documented costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to such fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such claim, action or proceeding and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

 

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(d)     Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for which it is entitled to be reimbursed under this Section 9, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 9(a) effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (ii) such indemnifying party shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into and (iii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.

 

(e)     Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agents, the Company and the Agents will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any reasonable and documented investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit, investigation or proceeding or any claim asserted) to which the Company and the Agents may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agents on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agents on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agents from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agents, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agents, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agents agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action, suit, investigation, proceeding or claim to the extent consistent with this Section 9. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(e), the Agents shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, any affiliates of the Agents, any partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents of the Agents and each person that is controlled by or under common control with the Agents will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof or pursuant to Section 9(d) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

 

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10.     Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agents, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

11.     Termination.

 

(a)     The Agents shall have the right, by giving notice as hereinafter specified, at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, has occurred that, in the judgment of the Agents, may materially impair the ability of the Agents to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion or letter required under Section 7(m), Section 7(n), Section 7(o) or Section 7(p), the Agents’ right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than 15 calendar days from the date such delivery was required, (iii) any other condition of the Agents’ obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, (iv) any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred, (v) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of United States federal or New York authorities, or (vi) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States or international political, financial or economic conditions that, in the judgment of the Agents, may materially impair the ability of the Agents to sell the Placement Shares hereunder or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), the Agents shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12.

 

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(b)     The Company shall have the right, by giving 10 days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(c)     The Agents shall have the right, by giving 10 days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d)     Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through the Agents on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(e)     This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

 

(f)     Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agents or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not be required to pay to the Agents any discount or commission with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by the Agents under this Agreement; provided, however, that the Company shall remain obligated to reimburse the Agents’ expenses pursuant to Section 7(g).

 

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12.     Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to the Agents, shall be delivered to:

 

SVB Leerink LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Peter M. Fry

E-mail: peter.fry@svbleerink.com

 

and

 

B. Riley FBR, Inc.

299 Park Avenue, 21st Floor

New York, NY 10171

Attention: General Counsel

E-mail: atmdesk@brileyfbr.com

 

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

 

SVB Leerink LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Stuart R. Nayman, Esq.

E-mail: stuart.nayman@svbleerink.com

 

and

 

B. Riley FBR, Inc.

ATM Desk

Attention: Natalie Bend

E-mail: Nbend@brileyfbr.com

 

and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

 

Vaxart, Inc.

385 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 9A

South San Francisco, CA 94080

Attention: Andrei Floroiu

E-mail: afloroiu@vaxart.com

 

with copies (which shall not constitute notice) to:

 

Thompson Hine LLP

Attention: Faith Charles

E-mail: faith.charles@thompsonhine.com

 

 

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally on or before 4:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Business Day, or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) by Electronic Notice as set forth in the next paragraph, (iii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier or (iv) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

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An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 12 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party in Section 12. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives actual acknowledgment of receipt from the person whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”), which shall be sent to the requesting party within 10 days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

 

13.     Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agents and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers, directors and other persons referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of each such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto, the persons referred to in the preceding sentence and their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agents may assign their rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of the Agents without obtaining the Company’s consent, so long as such affiliate is a registered broker-dealer.

 

14.     Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

 

15.     Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules (as amended pursuant to this Agreement) and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agents; provided, however, that Schedule 2 of this Agreement may be amended by either party from time to time by sending a notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 and, upon such amendment, all references herein to Schedule 2 shall automatically be deemed to refer to such amended Schedule 2. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.

 

16.     GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

36

 

17.     Consent to Jurisdiction. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any of the transactions contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum, or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices under Section 12 of this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient notice of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

 

18.     Construction.

 

(a)     The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

 

(b)     Words defined in the singular shall have a comparable meaning when used in the plural, and vice versa.

 

(c)     The words “hereof,” “hereto,” “herein” and “hereunder” and words of similar import, when used in this Agreement, shall refer to this Agreement as a whole and not to any particular provision of this Agreement.

 

(d)     Wherever the word “include,” “includes” or “including” is used in this Agreement, it shall be deemed to be followed by the words “without limitation.”

 

(e)     References herein to any gender shall include each other gender.

 

(f)     References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

19.     Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. Each of the Company and the Agents represent, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the other party, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405), required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agents or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an issuer free writing prospectus, and that it has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping.

 

20.     Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)     the Agents have been retained to act as sales agents in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares, the Agents have acted at arms’ length and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agents, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether the Agents have advised or is advising the Company on other matters and the Agents have no duties or obligations to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth herein;

 

37

 

(b)     the Company is capable of evaluating, and understanding and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

(c)     neither the Agents nor their affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

 

(d)     the Company has been advised and is aware that the Agents and their affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that the Agents and their affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

 

(e)     the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agents or their affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and agrees that the Agents and their affiliates shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees of the Company.

 

21.     Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

 

22.     Use of Information.     The Agents may not provide any information gained in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including due diligence, to any third party other than its legal counsel advising it on this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement unless expressly approved by the Company in writing.

 

23.     Agents Information. As used in this Agreement, “Agents Information” means solely the following information in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: the first sentence of the fifth paragraph under the heading “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus.

 

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR. All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

 

All references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agents outside of the United States.

 

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

38

 

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agents, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agents.

 

 

 

Very truly yours, 

   
  VAXART, INC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

By:

/s/ Andrei Floroiu

 

 

Name: Andrei Floroiu

Title: Chief Executive Officer 

 

 

 

 

ACCEPTED as of the date

first-above written:

   
  SVB LEERINK LLC

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Murphy Gallagher

 

 

Name: Murphy Gallagher

Title: Managing Director

 

 

 

B. RILEY FBR, INC. 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Patrice McNicoll

 

 

Name: Patrice McNicoll

 

 

Title: SMD & Co-Head of Banking

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

 

 

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:

[                                     ]

  [TITLE]
  VAXART, INC.
Cc:  [                                     ]
To: [Designated Agent] (the “Designated Agent”)
Subject: At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement, dated [●], 2020 (the “Agreement”), by and among Vaxart, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), SVB Leerink LLC and B. Riley FBR, Inc., I hereby request on behalf of the Company that the Designated Agent sell up to [  ] shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Shares”), at a minimum market price of $       per share[; provided that no more than [  ] Shares shall be sold in any one Trading Day (as such term is defined in Section 3 of the Agreement)]. Sales should begin [on the date of this Placement Notice] and end on [DATE] [until all Shares that are the subject of this Placement Notice are sold].

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

 

 

The Company

 

Andrei Floroiu

Margaret Echerd

 

 

SVB Leerink LLC

 

Murphy Gallager

Liz Meeks

Greg Marshall

atm@svbleerink.com

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 3

 

 

Compensation

 

 

The Company shall pay the Designated Agent compensation in cash up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Placement Shares pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement of which this Schedule 3 forms a part.

 

 

 

Exhibit 7(m)

 

 

OFFICERS CERTIFICATE

 

 

Andrei Floroiu, the duly qualified and elected Chief Executive Officer [and principal accounting officer] of Vaxart, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), does hereby certify in his respective capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement, dated [●], 2020 (the “Sales Agreement”), by and among the Company, SVB Leerink LLC and B. Riley FBR, Inc., that, after due inquiry, to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

 

(i)       The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date.

 

(ii)      The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

(iii)     As of the date hereof, (A) the Registration Statement complies in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading, (B) the Prospectus complies in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading and (C) no event has occurred as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein not untrue or misleading or for clauses (A) and (B) above, to be true and correct.

 

(iv)     There has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, results of operations, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented to the date hereof.

 

(v)      The Company does not possess any material non-public information.

 

(vi)     The maximum amount of Placement Shares that may be sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement has been duly authorized by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof pursuant to a resolution or unanimous written consent in accordance with the Company’s amended and restated articles of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and applicable law.

 

Capitalized terms used but not defined herein shall have the meanings ascribed to them in the Sales Agreement.

 

 

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, each of the undersigned, in such individual’s respective capacity as Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, has executed this Officers’ Certificate on behalf of the Company.

 

 

 

 

By:

 

 

 

Name:

Title: Chief Executive Officer

Date: 

 

 

 

     
     
  By:  
   

Name:

Title: Chief Financial Officer

Date:

 

  

[Company Signature Page to Officers’ Certificate]

 
ex_192665.htm

Exhibit 4.2

 

 

 

Form of Indenture

 

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

as ISSUER

 

and

 

______________________________________

 

As INDENTURE TRUSTEE

 

 

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of __________, _____

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE  

1

Section 1.01

Definitions.

1

Section 1.02

Other Definitions.

4

Section 1.03

Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

4

Section 1.04

Rules of Construction.

4

ARTICLE II TILE SECURITIES  

5

Section 2.01

Issuable in Series.

5

Section 2.02

Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

5

Section 2.03

Execution and Authentication.

7

Section 2.04

Registrar and Paying Agent.

7

Section 2.05

Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

7

Section 2.06

Holder Lists.

8

Section 2.07

Transfer and Exchange.

8

Section 2.08

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

8

Section 2.09

Outstanding Securities.

9

Section 2.10

Treasury Securities.

9

Section 2.11

Temporary Securities.

9

Section 2.12

Cancellation.

9

Section 2.13

Defaulted Interest.

9

Section 2.14

Global Securities

9

Section 2.15

CUSIP Numbers

10

ARTICLE III REDEMPTION  

11

Section 3.01

Notice to Trustee.

11

Section 3.02

Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

11

Section 3.03

Notice of Redemption.

11

Section 3.04

Effect of Notice of Redemption.

12

Section 3.05

Deposit of Redemption Price.

12

Section 3.06

Securities Redeemed in Part.

12

ARTICLE IV COVENANTS  

12

Section 4.01

Payment of Principal and Interest.

12

Section 4.02

SEC Reports.

12

Section 4.03

Compliance Certificate.

12

Section 4.04

Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

13

ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS  

13

Section 5.01

When Company May Merge, Etc.

13

Section 5.02

Successor Corporation Substituted.

13

ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES  

13

Section 6.01

Events of Default.

13

Section 6.02

Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

14

Section 6.03

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

14

Section 6.04

Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

15

Section 6.05

Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

15

Section 6.06

Application of Money Collected.

15

Section 6.07

Limitation on Suits.

16

Section 6.08

Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.

16

Section 6.09

Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

16

Section 6.10

Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

17

Section 6.11

Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

17

Section 6.12

Control by Holders.

17

Section 6.13

Waiver of Past Defaults.

17

Section 6.14

Undertaking for Costs.

17

ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE  

18

Section 7.01

Duties of Trustee.

18

Section 7.02

Rights of Trustee.

19

 

 

 

Section 7.03

Individual Rights of Trustee.

19

Section 7.04

Trustee’s Disclaimer.

19

Section 7.05

Notice of Defaults.

20

Section 7.06

Reports by Trustee to Holders.

20

Section 7.07

Compensation and Indemnity.

20

Section 7.08

Replacement of Trustee.

20

Section 7.09

Successor Trustee by Merger, etc.

21

Section 7.10

Eligibility; Disqualification.

21

Section 7.11

Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.

21

ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE  

21

Section 8.01

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

21

Section 8.02

Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

22

Section 8.03

Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.

22

Section 8.04

Covenant Defeasance.

23

Section 8.05

Repayment to Company.

24

Section 8.06

Reinstatement.

24

ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS  

25

Section 9.01

Without Consent of Holders.

25

Section 9.02

With Consent of Holders.

25

Section 9.03

Limitations.

26

Section 9.04

Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.

26

Section 9.05

Revocation and Effect of Consents.

26

Section 9.06

Notation on or Exchange of Securities.

27

Section 9.07

Trustee Protected.

27

ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS  

27

Section 10.01

Trust Indenture Act Controls.

27

Section 10.02

Notices.

27

Section 10.03

Communication by Holders with Other Holders.

28

Section 10.04

Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.

28

Section 10.05

Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.

28

Section 10.06

Rules by Trustee and Agents.

28

Section 10.07

Legal Holidays.

28

Section 10.08

No Recourse Against Others.

28

Section 10.09

Counterparts.

29

Section 10.10

Governing Laws.

29

Section 10.11

No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.

29

Section 10.12

Successors.

29

Section 10.13

Severability.

29

Section 10.14

Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

29

Section 10.15

Securities in a Foreign Currency.

29

Section 10.16

Judgment Currency.

30

ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS  

30

Section 11.01

Applicability of Article.

30

Section 11.02

Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

30

Section 11.03

Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

31

 

 

 

 

Reconciliation and tie between the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and this Indenture

 

Section 310

(a)(1)

7.10

 

(a)(2)

7.10

 

(a)(3)

Not Applicable

 

(a)(4)

Not Applicable

 

(a)(5)

7.10

 

(b)

7.10

Section 311

(a)

7.11

 

(b)

7.11

 

(c)

Not Applicable

Section 312

(a)

2.06

 

(b)

10.03

 

(c)

10.03

Section 313

(a)

7.06

 

(b)(1)

7.06

 

(b)(2)

7.06

 

(c)(1)

7.06

 

(d)

7.06

Section 314

(a)

4.02,10.05

 

(b)

Not Applicable

 

(c)(1)

10.04

 

(c)(2)

10.04

 

(c)(3)

Not Applicable

 

(d)

Not Applicable

 

(e)

10.05

 

(f)

Not Applicable

Section 315

(a)

7.01

 

(b)

7.05

 

(c)

7.01, 7.05, 7.07

 

(d)

7.01

 

(e)

6.14

Section 316

(a)

2.09

 

(a)(1)(a)

6.12

 

(a)(1)(b)

6.13

 

(b)

6.08

Section 317

(a)(1)

6.03

 

(a)(2)

6.04

 

(b)

2.05

Section 318

(a)

10.01

 

 

 

 

Indenture dated as of                                        between Vaxart, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Company”), and                                        , a                                               corporation, as trustee (“Trustee”).

 

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

Section 1.01 Definitions.

 

Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders.

 

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

 

Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent.

 

Applicable Procedures” means, with respect to any transfer or transaction involving a Global Security or beneficial interest therein, the rules and procedures of DTC or any successor Depositary, in each case to the extent applicable to such transaction and as in effect from time to time.

 

Authorized Newspaper” means a newspaper in an official language of the country of publication customarily published at least once a day for at least five days in each calendar week and of general circulation in the place in connection with which the term is used. If it shall be impractical in the opinion of the Trustee to make any publication of any notice required hereby in an Authorized Newspaper, any publication or other notice in lieu thereof that is made or given by the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient publication of such notice.

 

Bearer” means anyone in possession from time to time of a Bearer Security.

 

Bearer Security” means any Security, including any interest coupon appertaining thereto, that does not provide for the identification of the Holder thereof.

 

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means, unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in New York, New York on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

 

Capital Interests” means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of capital stock, including, without limitation, with respect to partnerships, partnership interests (whether general or limited) and any other interest or participation that confers on a person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of or distributions of assets of, such partnership.

 

1

 

Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

 

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.

 

Company Request” means a written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or a Vice President, and by its Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, its Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered.

 

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

Depository” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depository” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depository with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

 

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of the United States of America.

 

DTC” means the Depository Trust Company, a New York corporation.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America.

 

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) or (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board or by such other entity as the SEC may designate for that purpose.

 

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.02 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee.

 

Holder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered or the holder of a Bearer Security.

 

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity means interest payable after Maturity.

 

2

 

Maturity” when used with respect to any Security or installment of principal thereof means the date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, any Vice-President, the Treasurer, the Secretary, any Assistant Treasurer or any Assistant Secretary of the Company.

 

Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company.

 

person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of the Security.

 

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office with direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

 

SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02 hereof.

 

Stated Maturity” means when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any person, any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Interests entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof or, in the case of a partnership, more than 50% of the partners’ Capital Interests (considering all partners’ Capital Interests as a single class), is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such person or combination thereof.

 

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Sections 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

 

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

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U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America, and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

 

Section 1.02 Other Definitions.

 

TERM

 

DEFINED IN SECTION

“Bankruptcy Law”

 

6.01

“Custodian”

 

6.01

“Event of Default”

 

6.01

“Judgment Currency”

 

10.16

“Legal Holiday”

 

10.07

“mandatory sinking fund payment”

 

11.01

“Market Exchange Rate”

 

10.15

“New York Banking Day”

 

10.16

“optional sinking fund payment”

 

11.01

“Paying Agent”

 

2.04

“Registrar”

 

2.04

“Required Currency”

 

10.16

“Service Agent”

 

2.04

“successor person”

 

5.01

 

Section 1.03 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

 

  Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

Commission” means the SEC.

 

indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

indenture security holder” means a Holder.

 

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by a SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

 

Section 1.04 Rules of Construction.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(a) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

 

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(b) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

(c) references to “generally accepted accounting principles” and “GAAP” shall mean generally accepted accounting principles in effect as of the time when and for the period as to which such accounting principles are to be applied;

 

(d) ”or” is not exclusive;

 

(e) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

 

(f) provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

 

ARTICLE II

THE SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01 Issuable in Series.

 

  The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 

Section 2.02 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

 

  At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.02(a) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.02(b) through 2.02(s) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate:

 

(a) the form and title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);

 

(b) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

(c) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of or in exchange for, or in lieu of other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.07, 2.08, 2.11, 3.06 or 9.06);

 

(d) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

(e) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

(f) the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be served, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

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(g) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(h) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(i) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

(j) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

(k) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02;

 

(l) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

(m) the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

 

(n) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.02;

 

(o) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

(p) the provisions, if any, relating to conversion of any Securities of such Series, including, if applicable, the securities into which the Securities are convertible, the conversion price, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

 

(q) whether the Securities of such Series will be senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms thereof;

 

(r) any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein; and

 

(s) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series).

 

  All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, and, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, a Series may be reopened, without the consent of the Holders, for increases in the aggregate principal amount of such Series and issuances of additional Securities of such Series.

 

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Section 2.03 Execution and Authentication.

 

  Two Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature. If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid. A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture. The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication unless otherwise provided by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate. The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit placed upon the principal amount for such Series set forth in the applicable Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02, except as provided in Section 2.02 or 2.08. Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and, subject to Section 7.02, shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.04 and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.04. The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee’s board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents shall determine in good faith that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities. The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

Section 2.04 Registrar and Paying Agent.

 

  The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.02, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”) and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be served (“Service Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands. The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars, additional paying agents or additional service agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent and Service Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.02 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar, additional paying agent or additional service agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent; and the term “Service Agent” includes any additional service agent. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Service Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

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Section 2.05 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

 

  The Company shall require each Paying Agent, other than the Trustee, to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Holders of any Series of Securities or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of the principal of or the interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company may, at any time, require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for such money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund, for the benefit of Holders of any Series of Securities, all money held by it as Paying Agent.

 

Section 2.06 Holder Lists.

 

  The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Holders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten (10) days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Holders of each Series of Securities.

 

Section 2.07 Transfer and Exchange.

 

  Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.06 or 9.06). Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business fifteen days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

 

Section 2.08 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

(a) If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a protected purchaser, the Company shall execute and, upon its request, the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

 

(b) Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder. The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

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Section 2.09 Outstanding Securities.

 

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding. If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a protected purchaser. If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security. In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

 

Section 2.10 Treasury Securities.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities of a Series that the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

 

Section 2.11 Temporary Securities.

 

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon request shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

Section 2.12 Cancellation.

 

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for registration of transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation in accordance with its customary procedures and deliver such canceled Securities to the Company, unless the Company otherwise directs; provided that the Trustee shall not be required to destroy Securities. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.13 Defaulted Interest.

 

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Holders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least ten (10) days before the record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and to each Holder of the Series a notice that states the record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

 

Section 2.14 Global Securities

 

(a) Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depository for such Global Security or Securities.

 

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(b) Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.07 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.07 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depository for such Security or its nominee only if (i) such Depository notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or if at any time such Depository ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depository registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event, (ii) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable or (iii) an Event of Default with respect to the Securities represented by such Global Security shall have happened and be continuing. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depository shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

(c) Except as provided in this Section 2.14(c), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.

 

(d) Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

(e) ”This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.”

 

(f) Acts of Holders. The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

 

(g) Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.02, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

 

(h) Consents, Declaration and Directions. Except as provided in Section 2.14(g), the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depository with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

 

(i) The Depository or its nominee, as registered owner of a Global Security, shall be the Holder of such Global Security for all purposes under the Indenture and the Securities, and owners of beneficial interests in a Global Security shall hold such interests pursuant to the Applicable Procedures. Accordingly, any such owner’s beneficial interest in a Global Security will be shown only on, and the transfer of such interest shall be effected only through, records maintained by the Depositary or its nominee and such owners of beneficial interests in a Global Security will not be considered the owners or holders thereof.

 

Section 2.15  CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such not